2.1. History: The first notorious recognition of the Newcastle disease (ND) is Java, Indonesia (Kraneveld, 1926). It was followed by an occurrence in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England (Doyle, 1927) thus coining the term for the disease. There are also some previous reports of similar illness in Central Europe as well (Hallas, 1912). Specifically, McPherson (1956), attributed the cause of mortality of all chickens in the West Islands of Scotland to be Newcastle disease in 1896.
aureus SH1000 and two commonly used S. aureus susceptibility strains (ATCC 23723 and ATCC 29213). TBHQ exhibited an MIC and MBC of 8 and 8–16 mg/L, respectively, for all three strains. TBBQ had comparable activity, exhibiting an MIC and MBC of 4–8 mg/L and 8–16 mg/L, respectively. The MIC of 1, 4-benzoquinone (BQ) was also determined and found to be active against S. aureus up to a dose of 8 μg/mL, the same MIC found for 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) . Interestingly, the MICs observed for DMBQ was higher than those obtained for BQ, except when tested against B. cereus.
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
meningitidis has extensive mechanisms to elude the host immune system, of which tactics to evade complement deposition are of major importance. The main mechanism is the recruitment of a human negative regulator of the complement system, fH, by the membrane protein fHbp. This binding, by preventing the assembly of C3 convertase, inhibits the deposition of complement on the bacterial surface and increases its chances of survival. In addition, N. meningitidis can exploit host weakness by upregulating the expression of proteins involved in immune evasion in response to elevated temperature, as is the case in fever. Future research should seek to target specific antigens on the surface and inhibitors of the fHbp-fH interaction to be able to treat or prevent this disease that can have severe
Mucoadhesive interactions achieved mainly by hydrogen bonding of carboxyl, hydroxyl and other hydrogen bonding groups between glycoprotein and mucin.1 Transmucosal delivery of therapeutic agents attained much attention compared to other methods of drug delivery in recent days. Transmucosal
tested the cytotoxic potential of mammalian DNase-I and its possible use in tumour-targeting strategies for cancer therapy. They designed the anti-PLAP scFv-DNase-I chimera, which was highly cytotoxic in vitro in cells expressing the PLAP antigen. Then, in 2003, Ben-Yehudah et al. constructed and characterized a new chimeric protein, GnRH-DFF40, consisting of caspase-activated DNase. This protein construct exhibited the DNase I activity and was able to target and kill adenocarcinoma cells228.
To check the anti-aggregation property of Thymoquinone on diverse proteins (2). Project summary There are several evidences that Thymoquinone is a potent inhibitor of amyloid beta peptide (Alhebshi AH, 2013) but there is no evidence that it can also be a potent inhibitor of diverse class of standard proteins. So, we will check the effect of this compound on the aggregation behavior of standard proteins such as Bovine Serum Albumin, Human Serum Albumin and other mammalian serum albumins proteins. Till now we know that these standard proteins and some amyloidogenic proteins such as amyloid beta peptide, tau protein, IAPP, TRR protein are responsible for the diverse diseases which are caused by the aggregation of proteins and amyloid formation
 Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy. [14, 33] The reduction in intestinal motility and transit time with loperamide could improve the efficiency of the physiological mechanism and is effective in reducing high-output ileostomy. This will hasten the absorption of the medication before intestinal motility is initiated by the ingestion of food.
The results of this antibacterial activity of ch-ag np suggested that the presence of a small percentage of Ag nanoparticles in the composite was enough to enhance antibacterial activity significantly. Chitosan conjugated silver nanoparticles exhibit strong bacteriocidal activity at different concentration as compared to gentamycin. According to the result we can use chitosan conjugated silver nanoparticles to treat a various bacterial infection caused by pathogenic bacteria. Ch-AgNps can also help to reduce the problem of toxicity and to avoid the problem of multi drug resistance The broad spectrum of bioactivity of AgNPs makes them promising agents not only to fight. Both chitosan and silver nanoparticles are antibacterial agents
unirradiated CMCS and irradiated CMCS were screened in vitro for their antibactericidal activity (against Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and Gram negative bacteria E. coli) and antifungal activity (against Aspergillas flavus and Candida albicans). In this method, a standard 5 mm diameter sterilized filter paper disc impregnated with samples (1 mg/ml of DMF) was placed on an agar plate seeded with the test organism. The agar plates were then incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for bacteria and 28 °C for fungi. After incubation, the interrupted growth zone (zone of inhibition) around the test material was measured (mm/mg) and used as quantitative indicator of antibacterial and antifungal effectiveness of CMCS. The values obtained were the average of 5 measurements on the same plate at different zones.