Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical. Kant also discussed the importance of perfect and imperfect duties in relation to good morality between humans.
Finally, I will bring my argument to a close with a strong and coherent conclusion that virtue ethics is inherently flawed, and, as an alternative,
The will is strengthened and rebellious. This is the form of nihilism that does not stop at judgement, but goes on in action to be destructive towards the remaining vestiges of empty value systems. The strength of the will is tested by whether or not it can recognise all value systems as empty and meaningless, yet admit that these lies arise out of us and serve a purpose. This denial of a truthful world, Nietzsche says, may be a “divine way of thinking”. The active nihilist recognises that simplification and lies are necessary for life.
The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
The first is that “without freedom there can be no morality. “this is also used as justification for his view that only action can have a moral judgement associated with it. The second is that morality is an innate function of humans “we have it within ourselves”. Jung also heavily implies that the collective unconciuos is a force of good and that styling our actions in accordance with its “wishes” we can find the “right” path. This is not the same as trying to be “normal” which Jung calls “a hell of sterility and hopelessness” but rather the act of conforming to the moral ideal of society.
In a critique of both the works, the paper adopts the Aristotelian thought citing that actions of human aims to fulfill goodness, which arguably is the happiness, one that arises from virtues practiced out of habit. Both the philosophers weigh in heavily on the role of happiness in the day to day lifestyles of humans. Adopting a sharp critic to the conventional principles of utility, Mill recognizes that happiness, as opposed to pleasure has a wider space in human attainments. He goes in deeper to explore the levels of pleasure
Plato recommends that these thoughts are the main subjects that can be concentrated to give us honest to goodness information. Dispassionate vision alludes to Plato 's reasoning, which numerous accept was that he trust that the fact of the matter is a deliberation. Plato additionally contended the authenticity of all inclusive and conceptual articles. Plato 's reasoning brought upon current science where we see the division amongst individuals and nature, and how we can profit by it. Plato once said that "the body is a jail place of the spirit" this very statement enormously affected religion in Western Philosophy since it isolates the otherworldly world from the physical world.
But, you are putting your guard down and making yourself vulnerable by doing this. According to Daniel Kahneman, www.psychologytoday.com, “decisions to take risks may in fact benefit you, but just take your time, whenever possible, to gain the most fulfillment from those decisions.” Daniel is showing the readers of his post that following your heart can lead to heartbreak, as well as help put you in “topsy turvy” times. To conclude, Shakespeare wrote the Twelfth Night not only as a rom-com but also to show the reader how powerful logic and reason is. The character development Shakespeare used helped him to push his point across, he did this by giving subtle but relevant lines from each character.
In other words, ego mediates between the urges of the id and the moral strictures of others in the super-ego. It is the decision making component of personality. Ideally the ego works by reason. Yet Freud states that “In popular language, we may say that the ego stands for reason and circumspection, while the id stands for the untamed passions.” Another province, of the psyche, which he called the superego, is really a projection of the ego.
The general explanation for Consequentialism is “the view that morality is all about producing the right kinds of overall consequences” (Chase, 2016). Mozi’s social ethics is consequentialist as he suggested the basic standard to judge whether a superior fulfill righteousness is whether he can bring benefits to people (Zhang, 2016) and he suggested people should practice all-embracing love so as to reach harmonious social performance. Likewise, Confucius’s social ethics is as consequentialist as is Mozi’s as he pursued the best consequences to the society. For instance, Confucius mentioned if people was led by laws and bound by punishments, although they would not commit crime, they would not shame; when people was led by morality and bound
Ethical reflection is established upon questioning the meaning behind, or source of, various concepts of morality, as well as assessing their different functions. In Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals, ethical reflection can be seen in the form of questioning the origin of established values. This is particularly important in relation to my own concept of ethical reflection because it shows that Nietzsche is attempting to study deeper into the heart of what makes our values moral or immoral (innately good, or externally motivated). Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics does well at considering the intent behind our actions. In this text, Aristotle establishes that happiness is the ultimate end which we all seek.
What were transcendentalists’ beliefs on the individual and how the individual fit into the society? One of the key characteristics of transcendentalism was the belief that the purity of individuals was corrupted by the society and other social institutions such as political parties and organized religion. Hence, the central guiding theory in transcendentalism is the idea that people are at their best when they are independent and self reliant. Transcendentalists held the belief that intuitions surpassed reason as a guide to the truth this led them to their “conception of the sanctity of the individual and that individual’s freedom to make choices guided by intuitional knowledge” (p.1278). Whereas transcendentalists believed in the necessity of individuality, they also held the view that every human being possessed an element or piece of the Over-Soul enabling him or her to communicate with his or her creator through nature that united all people since the Over-Soul is one; hence, making all people a united entity.
As a result, he strove to find the Overman, a more-than-human being that emerges only by overcoming the false idols of conventional morality and religion, and the Master morality, the aesthetic honor code of the overman.
To recover sovereignty and regain control of your mind, Percy suggests rejecting formal education and tried and true methods of execution. He says the best way to rebound from the loss is to take the bull by the horns, and get your own free-thinking mind back. Morris says that your personal beliefs need to be taken with a grain of salt, and awareness of general truths is what really cannot be lost. If you wish to take part in Percy’s solution, Morris suggests you can lose rationality and the ability to differentiate your thoughts and opinions from reality. This could quickly lead to you making incorrect assumptions, and believing things solely based on your eyesight, which consistently lies to you.
It claims that this religion instills guilt for the feelings and aspirations that are inherent to humanity while promoting a moral system that consistently goes against the instincts and nature of mankind. In seeking moral excellence and “the ideals of humanity,” Nietzsche asserts that mankind loses its instinctive desire to grow and become powerful and, therefore, becomes corrupt (Nietzsche 6). To simplify, corruption can be defined as straying away from innate feelings that encourage growth and yearn for power. Nietzsche uses the concept of transvaluation of values to reiterate his argument that everything that Christianity suggested is good is actually evil and vice versa. Nietzsche sees Christianity as nihilistic, stressing that the values and traditions leave people yearning for redemption that they will never be able to achieve on their own.