The criterion, proposed by Nietzsche, how to value the advantages and disadvantages of history for life is the strength of individual, nation or culture. Healthy life instinct suggest when to think historically, when—unhistorically, so to say, when to remember, when to forget. For Nietzsche, forgetfulness is not only a passive disposition, but an active ability, the strength to suppress and dismiss, refined art that masters the past. What does Nietzsche mean by the strength of life? In The Twilight of the Idols, he explicitly says that “every individual may be scrutinized to see whether he represents the ascending or the descending line of life” (ibid).
Discuss the role of reason according to Kant. Show how reason is tied to autonomy and to Kant requirement that we respect others. Consider any weaknesses in Kant 's emphasis on reason in his moral theory. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who was widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality.
In The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant endeavors to refute Hume’s claim that all ideas have their origins in experience through his own transcendental idealism (Prolegomena, introduction, CoP pg. 819) . To do this, Kant progresses the view that it is possible to have a priori truths. To support this refutation, Kant develops a conceptual scheme that works to explain how a priori truths are synthesized in the mind, and gives an account of Kant’s “two-world view”. This view explores the relation and existence of the phenomenal world and the world of things-in-themselves.
Kant wrote the Metaphysics of Ethics (1797) where he described his ethical system that is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. Moreover, human actions of any kind undertaken by the person is a result of the sense of duty dictated by reason. Kant also divided reason into two parts; hypothetical imperative which dictates that human actions were performed for a certain end, and the other is categorical imperative which is the basis of morality: “Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a general natural law.” Thus, freedom is not a lawless freedom of anarchy but rather of self-government, the freedom to obey with consciousness on the universal laws manifested through reason. The end of every freedom is to ensure the welfare of each individual in which reason dictates toward an ideal
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) depicts enlightenment as “man 's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity” (Kant, 1784, p.1). Modernity was characterized in many ways, one of them goes as the age of enlightenment which involves the path to reach knowledge using reason only. Kant believed that enlightenment cannot happen and progress until everyone uses their reason and “Dare(s) to know”. He proposed that the power of reason can help escape self-deception and blind obedience as well as gain political freedom. He links the use of reason with freedom and this use of reason helped us achieve a system of morals.
In the Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke has emphasized the importance of persuasion in political power. Locke (1689, p.12) pointed out that the duty of the member in the society are exhortations, admonitions, and advices; if the offenders will not be reclaimed by the soft power, then the society has to use hard power to expel the offenders. In the argument, Lock believes that the use of political power should begin with soft power. If the soft power cannot function effectively, then the society should use hard power to stop the chaotic order and establish a new order. Therefore, the composition of political power should include force and
Here is the place reasoning at last goes up against reasonable esteem in Russell's eyes, in light of the fact that in applying the goals of thoughtful examination to the universe of activity, it prompts equity; and to the universe of feeling, to all inclusive love. I think this is the most crucial point from this section, so I will attempt to explain this in my own words. When we approach philosophical issues appropriately, we adjust our thoughts of truth to the reality we watch, as opposed to adjusting our view of reality to our own particular prior ideas of truth. The point of philosophy is to make us question life, and without it how would the human kind learn the art of reasoning? how would life be meaningful without being
Nietzsche ideas about these two types of morality, at their core, relate back to origin, mindset, and action in variety of evident ways that clearly illustrate his mental landscape on the matter. A massively important aspect of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideology about master and slave morality comes from the information frequently relayed about the history of morality, along with the ignorant perceptions of English philosophers. He mentions that these philosophers create their ideas from unhistorical standpoints, and “…it is certainly a shame that they lack the historical sense itself, that they themselves have been
2 statement. Waltz argues that the morality of prudence represents the conflict between order and survival. He argues that moral attitudes become more dominant when the consequences of political failure become more urgent. Waltz argues that the states must be concerned first of all with their stable position in the system rather than to maximize its power. The prudence can only be reasonable in a system of balance of power because this balance should be maintained by great powers.
The process of liberation includes “rejecting the banking system of education” and “reflecting upon one’s role in the world” in order to work on the issues it faces (Freire 323). Freire believes that a libertarian education is made up of using thought processes, not just taking knowledge from one brain and transferring it to someone else (323). This is where Freire’s “problem-posing” education comes from. This system would entail mankind to be “conscious beings” and focus on the different problems between the earth and mankind (Freire 323). This new approach to education depends on critical thinking.