Modern Sociological Theory: Niklas Luman

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The structural functionalism, since the middle of the 1960th has lost the value. There were modern sociological theories. We will consider two of them. Theory of systems. The most outstanding theorist of systems in sociology — Niklas Luman. He has developed sociological approach which unites elements of a structural functionalism of T. Parsons with the general theory of systems and has attracted concepts of biology and cybernetics. Luman considers that the system is always less difficult, than her external environment. Therefore systems develop new subsystems and establish between them various ratios to interact with the environment. Systems have to reduce complexity, otherwise they aren 't capable to function. Luman considers social systems…show more content…
The individual who doesn 't participate in communication can 't be part of society, so he is part of external environment. Social systems exist until they continue to operate, upon termination of operations the system disappears (existence of society of course). The communication termination will be a similar final point of life of society. Communication in Luman 's representation is the elementary operation which is responsible for formation of society. At the same time each communicative act happening in the world belongs to society. Out of communication of society doesn 't exist. External environment becomes harder and harder. Modern society can cope with it by means of differentiation process. The variety caused by differentiation provides faster evolution. Luman allocates four forms of differentiation: segmentary, stratification, central peripheral and functional. In modern society functional differentiation prevails and represents the most irregular shape of differentiation. Functional differentiation allows big flexibility of system, but if one system does not execute the function, the system in general can…show more content…
Mid and H. Sacks., who have developed the initial principles of this sociological direction. The term "symbolical interactionism" has been entered by G. Blumer. Basic provisions of a symbolical interactionism: * people interact with each other, being guided by symbolical significance which they attach to objects; * symbols are a product of social interaction (interaction) between people; * symbolical values arise and change by means of interpretation. Representatives of an interactionism claim that the individual creates the objects on the basis of those significance which it attaches them. From the point of view of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, people find the human nature thanks to the fact that interact by means of symbols. The major symbol is language. Language is a foremost and major factor of human interaction if there is no language communication, then there is no person also. In case of communication individuals exchange symbols. That the interaction (communication) proceeded, everyone shall interpret intentions of others by means of acceptance of a role (to deliver itself(himself) to the place of the partner). And communication is an exchange of symbols for the purpose of achievement of practical results in joint
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