The purpose of this lab was to change pennies from copper to silver to gold, like alchemists have attempted to do in history. Through the data and observations gathered throughout this experiment, it can be concluded that the pennies were not changed into a different element. For example, the density of the penny from 2005; which was the penny that was experimented on to see whether or not it could turn into silver; was 4.62 g/cm3 before the experiment and 4.89 g/cm3 by the end of the experiment. If this copper penny really would have turned into silver, then the density of the penny would be 10.49 g/cm3; which is the density of silver; by the end of the experiment. The penny may have turned silver in color, but this was only because it was plated in the zinc that was added to the beaker of water in the experiment.
Callyn Brown Richard Henry Lee Life span years: 1732-1794 Richard Henry Lee was born in Westmoreland, Virginia in 1732. He went to a private school in England and returned to Virginia in 1751. He came back during the French and Indian war and was chosen to lead a troop. In 1757 he was chosen as Justice of the Peace, he was then elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1774 he was elected to attend the first Continental Congress.
The colony of New Jersey was founded by George Carteret & Lord Berkeley in 1664. Same as New York, no major religion or religious goal. In 1775, it became a Royal Colony. The main goal of founding New Jersey was for trading and profiting. The Pennsylvania Colony became founded by William Penn in 1682.
The original 13 colonies of the United States were formed in 1732. Each of these had local governments and their populations grew quickly throughout the mid-1700s. However during this time tensions between the American colonies and the British government began to arise as the American colonists were subject to British taxation but had no representation in the British Parliament.
This point is valid to a certain extent, after it was released to the public that the shroud was a fake many tried to disprove this by coming up with theories that explain the reasoning for the dates being so late. Joe Marino and Sue Bedford were a couple who like many others had doubts about the results of the carbon tests. After years of playing detective the couple believed that they had finally found a logical explanation as to why the carbon dating produced such a late creation date. Their theory stated that the scientists working on the shroud had taken a piece of fabric that had been restored with a special technique that blended the two different sections together, consequently the date of the test was
The convention concluded the metric measurement system from the French Revolution as the international standard for length and weight. Thirty iridium-platinum meter bars were made with super high precision that would serve as the international standard for length for countries around the world. France also attempted to standardize time, by synchronizing the Observatory time from telegraph cables with twelve main clocks of Paris. However, the attempt was a failure due to the ice in the sewers that cripples the cables underground. By 1883, none of the twelve clocks were synchronized, and all clocks were having different times.
He then came up with his first model of the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, thus gathering data. He then interpreted that data by explaining that “there must have been a primordial lump of neutrons that would decay into the first hydrogen nuclei” (Williams et al., n.d., p. 2). Gamow’s research then ventured to the “Exploration and Discovery” part of the flow chart, by asking questions about the abundance of heavier elements, and by making observations on his problems. For example, he explained that “no stable isotopes exist at the masses of five and eight” (Williams et al., n.d, p. 2).
Bredt was the first one that successfully elucidated the molecule structure of camphor in 1893 after tremendous work had been done.6 Then Prof. Albin Haller, who used to be the president of French Chemical Society, successfully synthesized camphor from camphoric acid (Figure 2).2,10 However, since it was still difficult to find camphoric acid to produce camphor, in 1903, G. Komppa published his work that provided one way to synthesize camphoric acid (Figure 3).2,11,12 His work was actually controversial that Thorpe and Blanc criticized his work for different opinion on identity of a significant intermediate when synthesizing camphoric acid.11,12 This argument was finally end by Komppa himself by explaining errors made by his critics.11 Since then, the synthesis of camphor has been widely accepted and was also improved by other scientist later by simplifying synthesis steps (Figure
In part two of chapter five is all about Robert Boyle’s discoveries. One of Boyle’s experiments made him believe that he had created gold by combining silver, mercury, or lead to make something that had the appearance of gold. What he didn’t know is that he actually created iron pyrite, also known as fool 's gold because of its appearance. In 1689, Boyle believed to be closer to discovering the secret and did eventually succeeded in making a red powder but when he died in 1691 Isaac Newton wrote to John Locke asking him if he could find the powder and send it to him. He did eventually find it but had to write again because he didn’t known the use for it.
jefferson was in a committee to bring up advice for the Great Seal for the United States of America in 1776.The Great Seal has royal seals of the 7th 8th 9th centuries but the first seal to be called “Great”was because England King John (1199-1216).Then he required a smaller seal of its own “Privy Seal”for the use the sovereign's private business , and thereafter the King’s seal became known as the Great Seal. Now the Great Seal is called “The Great Seal”although no “lesser” seal exists. In 1780 second consultant francis hopkinson contribute red white and blue colors to shield an olive branch and radiant of the 13
Later on he went to Harvard College, where he graduated in 1777. He started to peruse law under Theophilus Parsons, yet his reviews were hindered in 1778 when Rufus King volunteered for civilian army obligation in the American Revolutionary War. Designated a noteworthy, he filled in as an assistant to General Sullivan in the Battle of Rhode Island. After the crusade, Rufus King came back to his apprenticeship under Parsons. He was admitted to the bar in 1780 and started a lawful practice
The Indians disagreed and the explorers sailed back to England. They told the Queen of their experience with the land they discovered, naming it Virginia, after the Virgin Queen. They then sent out a second trip to the new land of “Virginia.” This time, Ralph Lane was appointed as the captain.
You wish to substitute the bromine in the following molecules with a nucleophile. Explain whether the given molecule would react by S_N 1 or S_N 2 mechanism and explain why. 1-methyl-1-bromo-cyclohexane: S_N 1 mechanism because after Br leaves (leaving group departure) then it is a tertiary carbocation which is favored more in this type of mechanism. 1-bromopropane: This would react by S_N 2 mechanism because it is a primary alkyl halide, which undergo this type of mechanism.
Qualitative question: Was there any CuCl2 left? There was no CuCl2 left, so the reaction went to completion. When the NH4OH was added to the solution, it did not turn blue. When NH4OH is added to a solution with copper in it, the solution should turn a cobalt blue color. However, the solution created a gel that indicates that AlCl3 was in solution, and there was minimal color change (caused by the change in the way light passes through gel).
The purpose of this lab is to use the Diels-Alder reaction to combine anthracene and maleic anhydride. Named after its two founders the Diels-Alder reaction is the addition of a conjugated diene (electron rich compound) with a dienophile (electron poor compound). (1) These compounds will be combined using [4+2] cycloaddition, where the numbers 4 and 2 come from the number of π electrons that are used in each compound to synthesize the product. (2) This experiment comes at the cost of losing two π bonds to form two new sigma (σ) bonds in the cyclic compound. (2)