Table 5.1 shows engine specifications. Figure5.1 shows a schematic diagram of experimental set up. It is fitted with diesel engine, fuel tank. It has a data acquisition system, a computer, an operation panel and an exhaust gas analyzer. 5.3 Experimental procedure The waste animal fat methyl esters produced from waste animal fat and its blends with diesel oil.
Cerium that promotes oxygen storage to improve oxidation efficiency. 1 Three-way catalytic converter is connected to exhaust output conveyer, i.e. it is in-line with the exhaust system. It is included to deal with the exhaust out gases that result from first combustion that takes place in car engine. Figure 2: Diagram of a three-way catalytic converter.12 It is called a catalytic converter because it actually uses metal catalyst to chemically convert substance such as CO, NOx as well as some hydrocarbons to less toxic gases like CO2, H2, O2 and N2.4 Three-way catalytic converter operation A three-way catalytic converter is meant to treat the exhaust before it leaves the car and remove a lot of the pollution.
The analyte extract and mixed with water then introduce into airtight chamber. Gas (inert) is bubbled through water which is known as purging. Analyte move above the water and are drawn along pressure gradient out of the chamber. Analyte trap in adsorbent, desorbed by heating and transferred to GC-MS where volatile compounds are analyzed Pyrolysis Method (polymer material): In this system, we thermally decompose the polymer material such as plastic, rubber and resin at 500 degree centigrade and then analyze the resulting pyrolysates by using GC/MS. Then fragments create through MS and by analysis of these fragments structure of the polymer can identify.
Other uses include as a solvent, in fuels, and to make other chemicals. 1.3.2 Xylene Figure 1.4 Molecular structure of xylene Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl substituent. Molecular structure of m-xylene is shown in the above Figure 1.4. The three isomeric xylenes each have a molecular formula of C8H10. Xylene is a highly-flammable, colorless liquid.
This type of chromatography is used for the analysis and purification of low to moderate molecular weight, thermally liable molecules. It is the most effective method for the separation of chiral compounds. Principles are similar to high performance liquid chromatography however supercritical fluid chromatography uses carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. The entire chromatographic flow path must be pressurized, because supercritical phase represents a state in which liquid and gas properties converge. Supercritical fluid chromatography brings the advantages and strong aspects of HPLC and GC
The temperature of the sample was measured by a temperature control unit provided with Chromm Alumel thermocouple. The conductivity was determined using the relation σ=t/RA where ‘t’ is the thickness of the sample, ’ R’ is the resistance and ‘A’ is area of cross section of the samples.[39-40]. 2.6.1
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formaldehyde (HCHO) can be obtained by processing methanol and is also used for petrol bending (petroleum derived liquid). A large proportion of methanol is used to make motor spirit, vinyl acetate, acetic anhydride these chemicals is used for the manufacture of adhesives, coating, photographic film, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber and thermoplastic and mainly the methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) which reduces “knock” and also the proportion of CO and hydrocarbon in the exhaust. we can produce various aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes suitable for petrol (hydro carbon with five to eight carbon atoms ) by throwing the stream of vapour over alumina at temp. around 600 kelvin. An equilibrium mixture of methanol, dimethyl ether and water is produced which has 25 percent methanol.
Photoionization detectors can also be used in portable pick-and-go models, as well as in numerous lamp configurations (Poole 162). The advantage of PID is that it gives almost immediate results. This type of detectors is frequently used for detection of volatile compounds in sediment, air, soil, and water, frequently used for detection of contaminants in atmospheric air and in soil. The major disadvantage of PID is that it is unable to identify some hydrocarbons having small molecular weight - ethane and methane, for example (McNair & Miller 131). The scheme of PID is shown in Figure 8.
Impact generates an elastic wave which travels from incident bar reaches the specimen transmitted a part of the energy in the transmission a part of the energy is transmitted bar and some energy reflected back. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System is utilised for testing out different materials at high line rates in tension, compression and torsion ways. By changing the specimen holding fixture and changing the loading attachment the same instrument can be used for tension, compression and torsion tests. High temperature heating system can be drawn around the specimen for carrying out high temperature check. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System should be compatible with GTRE power supply conditions of input voltage 220-230 V AC, single phase, frequency-50HzThe Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System should be capable of conducting compressive testing at strain rates extending from 50 s-1 or a smaller amount to 10,000 s-1 or more at room temperature.
Figure CATIA modeling of DLR scramjet combustion chamber and planer strut injector. Figure 2: combustion chamber model 1 3D planer strut injector A wedge-shaped strut is placed in the combustion chamber downstream of the nozzle. The height of the 32 mm long strut is 0.295 mm and mass flow rate of strut is 1.5 to 4.0g/s. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS In the present study three different types of boundaries are applied: inflow, outflow and fixed walls. The flow fields under consideration here are supersonic.