During the performance, if a character performs several roles, either male or female, a kouken (stage assistant dressed in black) helps them make quick costume changes in or off stage. These changes can also be done to surprise the audience or to change the total atmosphere of a particular scene. Another essential part on Kabuki costumes, are the wigs. The wigs also represent the social ranking of the characters shown through the amount of precious ornaments the wig is decorated
The theatrical aspects of such religious rites were mainly the use of masks, specific roles, and most importantly the use of obscene gestures, rude songs and the carnival ambiance in general to amuse and charm the audience. However, the most popular theatrical elements emerge from the "contage" sessions on the “halqa markets”. It is an oral genre in which the public gathers around a professional storyteller. The performance of the halqa, essentially given by the recitation and gesture of the storyteller, can also involve participation of a musician and an assistant. This assistant was usually dressed in a bizarre and flashy way, with no differentiation between a man and a woman.
Zazen, also known as seated meditation, is one of the three marks of Zen that is occasionally shown in the Star Wars movies. Zen is one of the schools in Mahayana Buddhism. In Jedi meditation, Jedi Knights are "observing their minds with calm compassion and allowing a greater understanding of the present moment" (Bortolin 70). Feichtinger states that the Jedi connects combat and heroism with a "deep spirituality" which is similar to how the samurai incorporates "concentration, mindfulness, and determination into their sword fighting", which is based on Zen meditation (32). Seated meditation is a way for Buddhists to calm their minds, but it is quite popular even amongst non-Buddhists as well, especially in America.
When I was researching about Mahavira and Buddha, I found out that Jainism and Buddhism have very similar picture and statue. In my opinion, if I am not studying about both of Jainism and Buddhism. I will not be able to see what is the different between these two religion. Eventhough I did a research when I am writing this essay, but sometime I cannot seperate the statue of Buddism and Jainism because they were very similar. In Jainism and Buddhism, both of the men can become monks and women can also become a nuns.
Chapter two 2.1 - The tasks of monks imposed by the Khmer Republic (1970-1975) Although the government policy of the Lon Nol government was not described in Buddhist terms, the regime played a major role in the politicization of the Sangha. The government used the various groups of monks in three ways. First, monks were used to counter communist propaganda of the FUNK. This happened particularly in the provinces Pursat, Svay, Rieng, and Takes. Monks who spread the Republic message were either persuaded by the regime or joined the ‘holy war’ voluntarily.
II. Spirituality in Beat Poetry A. Buddhism and Beat The Beats wanted to find the way things connect with one another through a common idea that they all shared. They wanted to see how all of the things in the world are like each other and how to understand the way living things coexist with one another. They did not care for what was the world said they should be or were they believed life was greater than the labels put on you. According to Chandler (2007), “the Beat poets were not a philosophical monolith but a loosely-knit fellowship drawn by a vision.
The use of costumes and make-up has long been considered to be a fundamental part of theatre. While in traditional theatre, both in the East and in the West, costumes and make-up act as signifiers, helping the audience to identify the sort of characters they are watching. Whether the actor is playing a shite (Noh theatre) or young maiden (Peking Opera) or a (Italian traditional theatre - Commedia dell 'arte), there is a specific costumes and make-up designated as an irreplaceable part of characterization. In modern theatres, due to the popularity of Stanislavski’s realistic theatre, elaborated costumes and make-up became less important when it comes to creating theatrical illusion. Instead, costumes and make-up are kept as minimal and as close to reality as possible, which facilitate actors’ movement.
Pantomime has interwoven many theatrical elements into its dialogue throughout its existence, and by adapting to the perpetual world of theatre forms, it has reigned supreme (). The element of novelty in a pantomime contributes significantly to its appeal, as has its ability to incorporate modern trends and topicality within a structured framework (). Although the contemporary pantomime may have deviated somewhat from its original format, to remain popular this form of theatre has had to keep abreast of modern trends by weaving such trends into its format. By doing so, it
Theyyam, Padayani, Mudiyettu etc., in Kerala represents how there is an application of these techniques and its parallels and similarities in the West. Make-up and costumes of ritual theatre has similarities to the masks used in Artaud’s theatre. Dialogues have limited patronage. Both theatres make a wide usage of surrealistic techniques, incantation cries and haunts. Audience participation makes the theatrical experience more effective and has an undertone of therapeutic experience for the spectators.
A woman simply does not fit in in this radical gay figuration of the world. We as the reader might see Godot as a mother. In this sense, the play might be seen to represent the invisibility and unknowability and yet the irresistible desire to know the feminine enigma. If we look at Vladimir, we can see that there is absolutely no discussion in the play about him being a man, or about his assumed manliness. He was certainly a cypher for ideas but a very normal man, almost seen as more of a ‘thing’ than a gender.