Plessy v. Ferguson is significant for its declaration for its “separate but equal” statement in 1896, supporting the Jim Crow laws that were established at the time. Though less than a decade later, the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, a future court case in which the U.S Supreme Court reversed the previous decision and allowed for racial integration in schools throughout the United States. The Brown v. The Board of Ed. declared that blacks and whites were to be integrated into the same schools because the Plessy v. Ferguson case denied the Fourteenth Amendment. Following the decision, Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas admitted nine black students, though most opposed this. A white mob protested against a group of black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, from entering the high school.
Plessy v. Ferguson, a case challenging the law reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896. Upholding the law, the court said that public facilities for blacks and whites could be “separate but equal.” Soon the South had to be separate according to the
Have you ever thought about what makes a person good or evil? According to the Golden Rule we as humans should treat others the way we would want to be treated but this is not all ways the case. African Americans have fought for equality for an extensive period of time against desegregation and Racism. Due to the fact that White southerners were not happy with the end of slavery and the prospect of living or working “equally” with blacks whom they considered inferior.
Thurgood Marshall played a part in the change through his rulings on the Supreme Court and by helping defend others like on the decisive Supreme Court case “Brown v. The Board of Education”. As Marshall stated once "The position of the Negro today in America is the tragic but inevitable consequence of centuries of unequal treatment . . . In light of the sorry history of discrimination and its devastating impact on the lives of Negroes, bringing the Negro into the mainstream of American life should be a state interest of the highest order. To fail to do so is to ensure that America will forever remain a divided society" (“The man who turned racism into history THE LAW’If white supremacy has subsided in the United States, it’s largely due to Thurgood Marshall of the Supreme Court.”, par 10). African Americans were mistreated, viewed as lower class, and were not equal in the eyes of the people or the law.
Commonly withheld as being ‘Separate but equal by the Plessy vs Ferguson doctrine, this was not true in schooling (and other social + political areas) where black schools were often poorly equipped, leading to ghettos of uneducated black Americans whom turned to crime. These separate and unequal schools were challenged in Brown vs Board of education which consisted of 5 separate cases that were heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1952 concerning the issue of segregation in public schools. ‘Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Briggs v. Elliot, Davis v. Board of Education of Prince Edward County (VA.), Boiling v. Sharpe, and Gebhart v. Ethel. ‘The main issues of these events was the constitutionality of state-sponsored segregation in public schools. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that "separate but equal" public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional.
In 1954, the United States Supreme Court made a life-changing decision to integrate schools across the United States. Before this, people of a different race were not allowed to be in the same school, or even drink from the same water fountain. R.V. Cassill lived through this change, therefore he wrote, The First Day of School. A story about an African-American family recruited to be the first six black children to go to Joseph P. Gilmore High, an entirely white school. R.V. Cassill develops John’s character through John 's nervousness at the thought of having to go to the school, his anger at his mother, and his calmness when he was actually going to the school.
The Civil Rights Movement started in 1954 and continued until 1968. The Civil Rights Movement was a strive for the rights and the freedoms that African Americans had been given, but taken away from by things such as the Jim Crow Laws and segregation. The Civil Rights Movement had goals of gaining equal rights but also making the fundamental documents that America had been constructed upon to be true for everyone in America. These fundamental documents include the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
From 1877 to the mid 1960s the Southern United States enforced a series of rigid anti-black laws known as the Jim Crow Laws. In theory these laws were to create a “separate but equal” treatment, but in reality the Jim Crow Laws only sentenced people of color to inferior treatment and facilities. Under these laws, public organizations such as schools, hotels, restaurants, and the United States Military were segregated. Blacks were even expected to conduct themselves in accordance with the Jim Crow Etiquette.
However, many people disagreed with the integration such as the Governor of Arkansas, Orville Faubus. He announced the night before the admission of the students that the Arkansas National Guard would help maintain order and prevent the 9 Negro students from entering the high school. The Arkansas National Guard remained at Little Rock High School for 3 weeks to prevent the 9 students from entering the school. Until the NAACP helped get a court order to stop them.
Woodlawn had attempted integration several times throughout the 60’s but was never successful because of many murders and lynchings. They had attempted to integrate the school one last time in 1972 when 12 African Americans were admitted into the school. They were harassed and beaten terribly until they were on the verge of quitting when one black student rose up and said “Don’t lose faith, Don’t lose hope, and never give
The U.S. Supreme Court encountered various difficulties in trying to overthrow Jim Crow. After the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision, it makes things difficult for the court to overturn its “separate, but equal” ruling. Heading into the 20th Century, Black civil rights in America, particularly in the South were met with swift opposition. It was in large part due to the Supreme Court ruling that gave those states the power to enforce discriminatory legislation. In Robert J. Cottrol book, “Brown v. Board of Education: Caste, Culture, and the Constitution”, he described the Jim Crow era as it dealt with public education.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision formally introduced “Jim Crow” laws to the nation. The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately maintained that, “as long as equal facilities were provided to citizens, classification of individuals by race was neither a violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause nor inhibitory of the Black community’s advancement” (Guthrie, 2004, p 7-8). For the era, which followed the Supreme Court ruling, African Americans struggled for an equal life in society and tried to gain rights. With the creation of the NAACP in 1909 it “became instrumental in advocating the rights of its minority constituency…”
Little Rock Nine enrolled the beginning of the day the Arkansas National Guard 's turned away the students. The first day of school the African American cars were pelted with rocks along with death threats screamed at the students. These nine students made history that later became a big part of the Civil Rights Movement. Experiences that the students went through on their first day of school is something that no person should ever experience. One student went through having acid was thrown in her face, the other pushed down the stairs.
The Court declined his argument. The Court determined that the segregated schools were considerably equal enough under the Plessy doctrine. It wasn 't until the mid twentieth century when Brown v Board of Education came into play that Plessy’s argument was given the okay by the constitution. The Court tried to use Plessy v. Ferguson to deny the argument that Oliver Brown was giving during the Brown v. Board of Education case. Once the Courts decided that separating children by race could have an overall affect on the black children 's ability to learn.
The paratroopers from 101st Airborne Division was ordered for safety to the school. To the school building and sending out trouble makers bent on disrupting the federal mandate. Days after the troops members of the Arkansas National Guard. The president ordered 10,000more guardsmen’s. They kept the problem and dealt with it on their own which made the nine student parents sue the board of education because the verbal abuse and threats kept going on and getting worse.