Non Declarative Memory Research Paper

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It is proposed that a human beings long term memory is split into two distinct systems; declarative and non-declarative. These systems are each responsible for their own individual aspects of the memory. Declarative memory consists of events and facts that you learn consciously which are then stored in the medial temporal lobe diencephalon. In comparison non-declarative memory is much more complex and divides into many sub groups (Baddeley A, Eysenck M.W, Anderson M.C, 2009). Non-declarative or implicit memories aren’t learnt or stored in the same way as declarative memories. Non-declarative memories are usually learnt through natural instincts and experience (Dudai, Y 1989). Procedural memories such as skills and habits are stored in the…show more content…
This has also been noted in non-benzodiazapine sedatives that affect the same group of receptors, such as ambien (Bulach R, Myles PS, Russnak M 2004). The other cause is when a traumatic brain injury is inflicted resulting in damage to the hippocampus or adjoining cortices. Sometimes It also may be a result of shock or an emotional disorder. Although it is rare illness can also be the origin of anterograde amnesia if it causes encephalitis (inflammation of brain tissue.) An example of illness that can result in anterograde amnesia is herpes encephalitis. This illness is believed to be the result of the retrograde transmission of the virus from the face following simple herpes (HSV-1) reactivation, along a nerve axon, ending in the brain (Whitley RJ 2006) The virus lies inactive in the ganglion of the trigeminal cranial nerve, it however remains unclear what exactly causes the reactivation and how it gains access to the brain pathway though its believed it may be a result of changes in the immune system caused by stress. It is also believed that the olfactory nerve may be involved in this particular illness, offering an explanation its preference for the temporal lobes of the brain, as it sends branches there. If left untreated after 96 hours permanent damage in…show more content…
Patient H.M suffered from severe epilepsy, an experimental treatment of this disorder at the time was to carry out a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to remove the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in order to cure him of his epilepsy. After surgery it became apparent that although he had been cured of his epilepsy he had acquired anterograde amnesia. This meant that although he was able to complete tasks that required his procedural or short term memory his ability to commit thoughts and events to his explicit memory was diminished. This allows implication that recall from these memory systems may be facilitated, by different areas of the brain. Also it was found that he had the ability to recall long-term memories that existed afore his surgery, but lacked the ability to create new long-term memories, this implies that encoding and retrieval of long-term memory information also may be mediated by distinct systems. This led to the establishment of the central principle that the ability to acquire new memories is a distinct cerebral function, separable from other perceptual and cognitive abilities (Squire, L.R and Zola-Morgan, S
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