Non State Actors Analysis

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THE RAISE OF NON- STATE ACTORS
INTRODUCTION
Security sector governance is a concept which promises to produce policy insights on the security dimension of post-conflict peacebuilding. The literature on security sector governance has identified five actors that influence the process of democratic governance of the security sector which are in two categories. In the first category they are known as the security sector comprising of organisations authorised to use force; civil management and oversight organisations; penal and public safely organisations. The other category comprises of the non- state security organisations and civil society actors. The security sectors have the formal role of implementing security whilst the non –state security
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Even territory can be understood as one type of (expensive) resource that a non–state actors may have or fight for, which, in its turn, can enable access to other resources. The day-to-day material resources of non–state actors are for example weapons, money, uniforms, means of transportation/communication and other types of equipment. In addition to such material goods available from non–state actors there are also services, such as the provision of justice, land reforms and campaigns to improve health. Such services can be provided to members and supporters, but also to individuals under the control or influence of non–state actors.
REASONS FOR THE RAISE IN NON –STATE ACTORS
Non- state security organisations have increased in Africa since the late 1980s. There are several reasons that have led to this occurrence that relate directly to the quality of democratic security sector governance:
• Armed conflicts that increasingly take on regional dimensions
• Ineffective state security
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Over time, the “services” its members provide have grown to include adjudication of a wide range of civil matters such as marital and other family problems or unpaid debts. While there is no doubt that these services are needed, there is no accountability, despite – or perhaps because of – the Bakassi Boys relationships with several state governments in south-eastern Nigeria. The members of the Bakassi Boys have increasingly acted with impunity, and allegations of politically motivated activities have escalated. While the Bakassi Boys represent one extreme of non-state involvement in the criminal justice system, a diverse group of Nigerian non-state actors – traders associations, guilds, religious bodies, community associations, for example –have become involved in settling disputes among their
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