Since there are a plethora words and actions that have various meanings in different cultures, language can enhance our perceptions of reality. We strengthen our erudtion when we understand that some paralinguistic cues have divergent construal’s. In the book, Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, they give an example of certain signals having different meanings. Making the “okay” signal with your hands betokens everything is fine in the United States. Comparatively, in Japan that same gesture stands for money (Parrillo, 2016). While body language, nonverbal communication, and signals enhance how we visually see the world around us, they can also belittle the way we distinguish things.
When an argument arises, everyone has the choice to either talk it out face-to-face, talk over technology, or to ignore the issue and let it get worse. This has been displayed recently by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The movie-documentary “My so Called Enemy” shows how face-to-face interactions might help the conflict subside, but not exactly how it works. The evidence that is provided below shows that face-to-face interactions may be able to help resolve issues better than non-face-to-face interactions.
The client had an L-hemisphere CVA on 8/11/10. After the stroke, the client was admitted for a 5 day acute care hospitalization and then into an inpatient rehab setting for six weeks for one hour every day. Through a speech evaluation, the client was diagnosed with a mild anomic aphasia and mild apraxia of speech. The client 's goals are to improve her mobility, communication, and return home. This session was a re-assessment six months after she was discharged from the inpatient rehab setting.
How did writing first develop? What was its function? Who invented it? Writing first developed as tokens, which were merely clay pieces about the size of a quarter. The tokens represented an accounting system and were used to record items purchased or sold such as goats, sheep or even bottles of wine. It is unclear whether writing was invented by the Sumerians or the Egyptians. However, what is not disputed is the Sumerians created one of the first and most distinguished forms of writing.
The brain is the most complex organ in our body. It serves as the command center of the human nervous system. The brain is composed of different parts and functions that are dependent upon each other. The brain consists of two distinct sides: the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The side of the brain that endures damage will impact the function on the opposite side of the body and impairs mental capabilities. Hence, any injury or damage to the brain can produce impairment on the brain functions. Brain injuries has often led to low psycho-social functioning (Pierson & Noggle, 2010) as well as a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms (Wozniak, Krach, Ward, Mueller, Muetzel et al., 2007). The most frequent sequelae after severe brain
We have Verbal, Nonverbal, listening and responding and asking questions as listening skills listed in chapter 7 of our text books. I feel two would be best when dealing with a resistant client. I feel listening and responding as well as asking questions are the most effective ways to deal with a client who just does not want to be in front of you, or does not agree with having to be in front of you. I feel listening and responding is effective because if the client is quiet, extremely demanding or totally unmotivated we need to listen to them and allow them to express themselves in any way they feel they need to for us to understand their point of view. I can see next follow with questions being very effective. This is a great way to see if we can pin point something to get them more on board with getting goals set and met.
Because people who have phantom limb pain complain of a constant pain many health practitioners have attempted surgery based upon the premise that it is a nerve issue; however, surgery to fix the pain is unsuccessful. Ramachandran came up with the concept that the somatosensory homunculus on the right side of the brain has the representation of the face next to the hand on the cortex. Because the hand is no longer present, there is no stimulus coming from the hand to the somatosensory cortex. The cortex wants stimulation from the hand therefore the face encompasses the hand section of the somatosensory cortex and begins to activate the hand when the face has a stimulus. This apparent reorganization of the individual’s somatosensory cortex
In this video Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran explains how the brain works and he began investigation about the “phantom limb syndrome”.
"The posterior lobe forms about 20% of the human cerebral cortex and is divided into two major regions, the somatosenory cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. The posterior parietal cortex which is located at the junction of multiple sensor regions, projects to several cortical and subcortical areas and is engaged in a host of cognitive operations" (Behrmann, Geng, Shomstein) The posterior parietal cortex has most commonly been associated with visuo-spatial perception and spatial attention. However, evidence has involved it in a much wider range of cognitive functions. (Constantindis, Bucci, Rugg)
Split-brain concepts have been explored for almost a century. The study has opened up many new frontiers of brain research. These new frontiers have uncovered hemispheric specialization and provided more focus on brain regions. The initial research into split-brain was due to neurologists trying to find new ways of solving neurological disorders. The first sign of split brain was in the 1940s. Dr. William P. van Wagenen introduced a technique of corpus callosotomy for treatment of refractory epilepsy. He discovered that the removal of the corpus callosum was a viable method of reducing convulsive seizures that was presented from supportive observations. He tested this theory on 10 patients that underwent the surgery. Seven of the patients that underwent treatment had satisfactory results and all patients had improvement in seizure control. However, he only partially removed the corpus callosum in his treatments. This was due to the unknown side effects of the complete removal of the corpus callosum. After Wagenen 's research, more than 20 years passed before the next clinical series. There was a revival of interest of corpus callosotomy in 1960. Roger W. Sperry and Micheal S. Gazzaniga discovered the full removal of the corpus callosum alleviated seizures. As a result of the corpus callosotomy, it had an unfortunate side effect called split-brain syndrome. This syndrome has been the cornerstone of research in hemispheric differences and is constantly being studied to this date.
“Mirror neurons” contribute to the brain’s acquisition of complex motor skills through observation, which provides some recorded brain activity as well as impersonations which produced a more powerful ignition of neurons. The intermission between witnessing an activity and impersonating it provided discovery into the “prefrontal 46” being activated as well, this area of the brain is linked to “motor planning and working memory.” Evidence points to the connection between “mirror neurons” and “observation based learning” of complex “cognitive skills.” It is considered that human interaction started with “facial and hand gestures,” implying that “mirror neurons” largely contributed to the development of language. Consequently, the ease in which humans can unite and comprehend one another nonverbally could be contributed to “mirror
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Each year, approximately 795,000 people suffer from a stroke. Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long term disability in the United States. Stroke requires a medical diagnosis because there are different types that affects the brain. The two different but most common types of stroke are ischemic stroke which is caused by a clot in the artery, and the hemorrhagic stroke which is caused by bleeding from an artery rupture.
It occupies the front and top portions of the skull, performing sensory functions, motor functions and integration functions such as mental activities. The cerebrum is divided into the right and left sides, or hemispheres. Depending on the area of the cerebrum and which side is affected by a strokes, different functions can be impaired. John Hopkins Medicine (2015) defines the effects that a stroke can have on the left side of the cerebrum as being “left-sided weakness or paralysis and sensory impairment, left neglect which is when a patient denies their paralysis or impairment, inability to see the left visual field of each eye, spatial problems with depth perception or directions, such as up or down and front or back, inability to localize or recognize body parts, inability to understand maps and find objects, such as clothing or toiletry items, memory problems, behavioural changes, such as lack of concern about situations, impulsivity, inappropriateness, and depression”. A stroke that occurs on the right side of the cerebrum, can cause impairments in areas such as (John Hopkins Medicine, 2015) paralysis, sensory impairment and weakness in the right side of the body, language difficulties, inability to see in the right visual field of each eye, impaired ability to do math or to organize, reason, and analyse items, behavioural changes, such as depression, cautiousness, and
State the Problem: Intercultural Communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. The transaction process of listening and responding to people from different cultural backgrounds can have a challenging. The problems are different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds (language barrier).
It is also known as nonverbal communication. This type of communication includes no words but gesture, body language, eye contact, posture or facial expressions. When we interact with others, we continuously exchange wordless signals. A considerable part of nonverbal communication is facial expressions as these indicate others about our feeling, attitudes, states of mind and relationships. Facial expression also plays a major role in communication since the expression on our face say a lot about our mood. Eye contact also plays a vital role in effective communication. There are times when we experience words that come out of our mouth and the ways we communicate through our body language are totally different. In this kind of situation, the receiver has to determine whether to believe verbal or nonverbal message. Regularly the receiver would select the nonverbal as it is more natural and it truly displays the speaker’s true feeling and intention. The gestures such as the way we sit, how fast and how loud we talk and how much eye contact we make send strong messages to the receiver. These messages are sent continuously even when we stop speaking. It means that even when we are silent, we are still communicating