In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8). The acetabulum is a deep cotyloid cavity in which all three pelvic bones contribute. It is composed of the body of ilium craniolaterally, the body of ischium caudolaterally and the body of pubis medially. The acetabulum is reciprocal to the head of femur, with which it forms the spheroidal hip joint. The acetabular cavity consists of the peripheral articular lunate surface and the non-articular acetabular fossa in the center.
INTRODUCTION This assignment is about the study of the effect of agonist and different concentration on guinea pig ileum and it will consist of method, graph results and discussion. Drug is defined as a chemical that has both biological and pharmacological effects on human. Its branch is pharmacology which can be divided into two branches namely pharmacodynamics and pharmaco kinetics. (C. Stephen and W. Robin (2010)) Pharmaco dynamic is about what drug does to the body and pharmaco kinetics is the study of what the body does to the drug. Drugs may produce certain effects on the cardiac muscles example ephedrine may increase heartbeat, stimulation of nerve ending in the nervous system is caused by amphetarine drug which produces changes in
These mechanisms are the Behavioral Activating System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). The BAS is associated with the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is the chemical that moderates pleasure in the brain. It is released during pleasurable situations and causes one to seek out the pleasurable activity. This means food, sex, and several drugs of abuse are also stimulants of dopamine release in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex.
This pathway originates in a region of the midbrain called the ventral tegmental area and extends to the nucleus accumbens, one of the brain’s key reward areas. Besides reward, this circuit also regulates emotions and motivation. In the normal communication process, dopamine is released by a neuron into the synapse (the small gap between two neurons), where it binds to specialized proteins called dopamine receptors on the neighboring neuron. By this process, dopamine acts as a chemical messenger, carrying a signal from neuron to neuron. Another specialized protein called a transporter removes dopamine from the synapse to be recycled for further use.8 Drugs of abuse can interfere with this normal communication process.
One of the principal treatments approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Alzheimer’s disease is a drug named Rivastigmine (Exelon®). The beginning of this essay starts with how the neurons relay messages in the central nervous system followed by the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease then illustrates the function of Rivastigmine to reduce the effect of Alzheimer’s disease. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Neurons communicate with each other by relaying electrical and chemical signals across the synapses (Stufflebeam, 2008). Synapses are places usually formed between the axon terminals and dendritic spines. The presynaptic neuron is the neuron that transmits the signal whereas the postsynaptic neuron receives the signal.
One amino acid that is believed to affect the shape of the pocket is valine, which is present in the fifth transmembrane domain. Changing it to isoleucine alters the shape of the pocket in such a way that the maximum effect is generated by heptanol instead of octanol. The importance in determining the specificity of receptor cells of the amino acid molecules is highlighted in this
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They are found in the extremities and include the humerus, radius and ulnar of the arm. Short bones include the tarsal and carpal bones while flat bones include the frontal and parietal bones. Irregular bones consist of the bones of spine and certain bones of skull. Bone can also be classified according to its structure; either as cortical or cancellous bones. Adult cortical bone consists of networks of interconnecting
In this essay the function and supporting studies of the neurotransmitters Serotonin and Acetylcholine will be explained. Serotonin It is associated with the regulation of sleep, memory, learning, appetite and mood (key factor in mood balance). Low serotonin levels can lead to depression. Increasing the amount of Serotonin in the brain helps reducing depression and improving mood. Serotonin based medication are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which are used to reduce the symptoms of
The H gene encodes an enzyme, L- fucosyl tranferase that adds L-fucose to the terminal galactose to form the H antigen (Ahmed, 2007). Individuals with with blood grioup A and AB contain the A gene which is found on chromosme 9. This gene encodes N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase which adds N- acetylgalactosamine to the terminal galactose of the H antigen, to create the A antigen (Ahmed, 2007). The B gene encodes D galactosyl transferase which adds D-galactose to the ternminal glactose of the H antigen to create B antigen. The O antigen doesnot produce a