Normal Science Theory

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1.3.3 Normal science According to Kuhn, the acquisition of a paradigm that permits a highly directed and esoteric type of research is a sign of maturity in the development of any scientific discipline. The transition of a scientific discipline to the status of maturity occurs when one of the pre-paradigm schools makes a splendid achievement that attracts the attention of the scientific community. The other schools, then, gradually disappear. Their disappearance is due to the conversion of their members to the new paradigm. Kuhn asserted that "[t]he new paradigm implies a new and more rigid definition of the field. Those unwilling or unable to accommodate their work to it must proceed in isolation or attach themselves to some other…show more content…
It is a "research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice." Normal science is not directed to discover new kinds of phenomena or to invent new theories. Instead, it is restricted to articulate the phenomena and theories that are already involved in the paradigm. Thus, the range of phenomena and problems considered by normal science is relatively small and esoteric. But Kuhn asserted…show more content…
However, it has a potential success discoverable in selected examples. Practitioners of normal science are engaged in the actualization of that potential success. This actualization is "achieved by extending the knowledge of those facts that the paradigm displays as particularly revealing, by increasing the extent of the match between those facts and the paradigm's predictions, and by further articulation of the paradigm itself." Thus, normal science involves rather routine activities that aim to force nature into the conceptual framework of the paradigm.

Normal science consists of experimental and theoretical investigations. Experimentally, the practitioners of normal science attempt to increase the reliability of their measurements and the precision of observations. Moreover, they strive to fill the gap between theory's predictions and observational facts. They also attempt to increase the scope of the paradigm by considering phenomena not yet have been investigated. In order to carry out such work, complex apparatus must be designed, constructed, and employed. This requires considerable effort and ingenuity from

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