CHAPTER 9. COMMUNITY POLICING
Normative Sponsorship Theory
Community policing relies on the normative sponsorship theory, which indicates that people who have a convergence of interest may cooperate with one another in order to satisfy their needs (Sower, Holland, Tiedke, & Freeman, 1957). However, the community members will only work together as long as the goals are within the normal limits of established standards (Sower & Gist, 1994). Hence, the more congruent the beliefs and values of the stakeholders, the more likely they will sponsor change and work together to solve their problems. Therefore, it is imperative that the police and community members work together to define common goals, to effectively mobilize community resources, and to sponsor change in order to reduce crime and to promote community health.
Critical Social Theory
Community policing also relies on the critical social theory, which is the practical social science that encourages individuals to become socially and politically active in order to change and improve their current social conditions (Agger, 2006). Indeed, critical social theory endorses the enlightenment, empowerment, and emancipation of the people (Fay, 1987). First, people are enlightened when they obtain empirical knowledge about their states of oppression and their potential capacity to improve their situations. Second, people are empowered when they are galvanized to engage in a socially transformation action. Finally,