Ayn Rand’s website introduces objectivism as a new philosophy for life; it explains the four components and how they work together: “In Rand’s philosophy, reality is not to be rewritten or escaped, but, solemnly and proudly, faced.” All choices must follow nature’s laws, because they are unchanged and unable to be controlled. Reason should also be used when making decisions, because “To choose to follow reason, Rand argues, is to reject emotions, faith or any form of authoritarianism as guides in life.” People need to prioritize facts over desires or emotions. “The purpose of morality,”“is to teach us what is in our self-interest, what produces happiness.” The purpose of life is to make decisions that are self-beneficial and that provide us with happiness. A capitalistic society will “protect the rights of each individual,” so they can “demand the freedom to think and speak, to earn property and associate and trade, and to pursue his own happiness.” Men should have the right to create their dreams and pursue them. Lastly, Rand states: “An individual who eagerly faces reality, who embraces his own rational mind as an absolute, and who makes his own life his highest moral purpose will demand his freedom… and pursue his own happiness.” It is necessary to use these tools to be the right kind of selfish and live the most fulfilling
In Julie Beck’s informative article, “This Article Won 't Change Your Mind,” she explores and challenges the phenomenon that belief and choices are often influenced by a person’s moral characteristics and their environment. Beck first uses a short anecdote explaining how people often chooses to only believe the things that they want to believe. If a subject matter is too uncomfortable to discuss, people often become dismissive and choose not to acknowledge the unbearable truth. Beck then continues to pursue her argument by applying reliable studies in order to strengthen the ethicality of her beliefs. She uses sources such as T Leon Festinger’s study and Stanley Schachter’s book, When Prophecy Fails, in order to imbed undeniable facts into
A Teachable Ethical Concept McMahone and Hardin-Baylor (2012) explore benefits of using a widely recognized a leadership style in organizations called servant leadership” to provide a systematic training approach that could help organizations to encourage ethical practices in their work environments. Keith (as cited in Spiro, 2011) believes that this style is about the focus on identifying and meeting needs of others in the organization, instead of the focusing self-interests and maximizing individual benefits of leaders like power, fame, and wealth. Spiro (2011) highlights that becoming a servant leader require developing the habits 1. build this style of leadership into the founding organizational values of. 2. recognizing your own strengths and weaknesses and their impact 3. Developing a flatter organizational structure 4. listening to the people around well.
The Rational Basic Test is a regulations that provides a reasonable and rational method of advancing a legitimate institutional goal. There are four elements that the Rational Basic Test follows, the first is there must be a rational connection between the regulation and the legitimate interest put forward to justify it. The second is there must be an alternative means of exercising the right that remain open to prison inmates. The third there must be a minimal impact of the regulation on correctional officers and other inmates. And lastly there must be no less-restrictive alternative available.
The most common reasons for hesitation are: fear of loss of relationships, loss of privacy, fear of unspecified “bad consequences” or retaliation, and insufficient evidence. Some people feel too traumatized by the crime to want to speak out. They fear retribution by criminals. They worry police may not be able to protect their identity. And some just do not want the hassle of protracted legal proceedings.
The Rule-utilitarians stablish that every person should follow rules that have been implemented for the good and happiness of the society. The Act-utilitarians do not focus on implementing rules but rather on the single actions and their consequences. Utilitarianism is useful for developing ethical arguments that justify the suffering of some for the happiness of the majority. For example public policy
It seems as though that any person would have reason not to torture. Additionally, I think such a reason should motivate any person to abstain from torturing. However, there is the practical motivating understanding of Mackie suggesting that there are no such motivators. If so, then how could one explain the existence of objective moral values? Michael Smith maintains that not everyone is a calm, cool, and collected person, which inhibits their ability to feel the motivation of their awareness of objective values.
Essay #1: Ethical Principles in Professional Counseling Autonomy The principle of autonomy is to consider the clients’ rights on making their own decisions when resolving their own conflicts. The counselor cannot tell them what to do in order to resolve their problems. The counselor encourages the client’s personal growth while respecting the client’s culture, personal values, and belief. Corey et al, (2015) states that supervision counselors that are being trained, must learn that there is no need to surrender their own values and beliefs; however, they should learn to leave their own personal values and beliefs out of the counseling sessions (p.75). Nonmaleficence The principle of non-maleficence is “do no harm” to the clients.
As virtue ethics purports, humans need experience, emotional maturity, reflection, and training in order to acquire moral wisdom. This cannot be gained simply by learning a rule and applying it to all situations regardless of your experience. Virtue ethics is also based on character traits. These traits take into account your intentions and what you are thinking which seem like a reasonable choice for an ethical decision. Now examine act utilitarianism.
The Enchiridion is a practical philosophical aid teaching the reader the best way to live. Philosophy, Epictetus taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. One is urged to revel in in the habits of control, humility, and different nuances of wisdom. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and objectively. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.