3.2 Memory Checkers: Memory checkers verify two aspects of memory operations: memory consistency and cache coherency. Memory Consistency imposes the ordering conditions on interleaving of accesses to distinct addresses during execution. Cache coherence property ensures that any access to a given location returns the latest value to that location. Based on this, they are classified as follows: 3.2.1 Memory Consistency Checker: Biruk Mammo et al. proposed a method for verification of shared memory interactions of CMPs (OOO cores) in .
Example of data link layer includes PPP, FDDI, ATM, IEEE 802.5/ 802.2, IEEE 802.3/802.2, HDLC, Frame Relay. Network layer The network layer provides the protocol for routing the data through the configured network nodes. This layer provides switching and routing technologies that enable data to be transmitted, both of the technologies create a virtual circuits or logical paths that is use to transmit the data across network from the one node to another targeted node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer with addition of other functions of this layer includes addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and finally packet sequencing. Example of network layer is AppleTalk DDP, IP, IPX.
163 bit ECC is generally considered as equivalent(in terms of security) to RSA with 1024 bit key size. Instead of directly implementing the elliptic curve point multiplication over such a large extension field, we first implemented it in a lower extension field GF(2 11 ). At first a MATLAB simulation of the system was carried out and then the corresponding algorithm was coded using VHDL.Various possible optimization methods have to be explored,once an optimized design is developed over GF(2 11 ), it is to be extended to the 163 bit size. The main steps involved in the implementation of the point multiplication unit includes choosing an
It is widely used for data communications and telecommunications applications in structured cabling systems. In most twisted pair cable applications the cable impedance is between 100 ohms and 150 ohms. When a cable has a long distance between the conductors, higher impedances are possible. Typical wire conductor sizes for cables used in telecommunications 26, 24, 22 or 19 AWG. Coaxial Cable:A coaxial cable is one that consists of two conductors that share a common axis.
Error correcting codes have been developed to solve this type of problem. The aim of channel coding theory is to find codes which transmit quickly, contain many valid code words and can correct or at least detect many errors. So, different codes are optimal for different applications. The needed properties of this code mainly depend on the probability of errors happening during transmission. One simple way to detect errors
It also provides the keys to open, maintain, verify or close the communication channel. Once the message reaches the receiver it must be decode to be understood. The inconsistency between what was sent and what has reached the addressee, is caused by the background noise. (Szabo 1999,
If DEK is shorter than the data, DEK(k) is replicated and padded circularly to generate whose length is equal to the raw data or cipher text. DSE scheme is an appropriate solution for securing SG wireless communication. It can prevent eavesdropping and forging by utilizing the inevitable errors in wireless communication; can reduce the cost on computation and storage by applying the simple algorithms; can self-organize and self-manage. 3.1.4 Attack case in Smart Grid A smart grid platform is constructed to investigate how the attacker intercepts the communication of smart meter and injects bad data into smart
Input is a record of which bitcoin address was used to send the bitcoins at the beginning. The amount is the intended number of bitcoins that the user looks to send. The last piece of information is the output which is the address of who is to receive the
Zigbee transceiver is used in communication section. 1.3 THESIS: The thesis explains the implementation of “Collision avoidance of Trains by creating mutual Communication using Embedded System” using AT89S52 microcontroller. The organization of the thesis is explained here with: Chapter 1 Presents introduction to the overall thesis and the overview of the project. In the project overview, a brief introduction of Collision avoidance of Trains by creating mutual Communication using Embedded System and its applications are discussed. Chapter 2 Presents the topic embedded systems.