Since the solvent is nonpolar, we would expect carotene to have the lowest Rf, then xanthophylls, and chlorophylls would have the highest. As discussed before, this is because chlorophylls are the most polar of the three and carotenes are the least polar of the three. Based on my results, I would say that the packing and running of the column was effective in separating the pigments as there were quite different Rf values for the original than for the other two colors and the band for the yellow was nothing like the bands for the green. There were no limitations in procedure which negatively affected the end results, so there is nothing I would change to it going
The purpose of this lab was to observe the phenomenon of resonance in an open ended cylindrical tube and use resonance to determine the velocity of sound in air at regular temperatures. A hypothesis for this lab was that if the frequency of the tuning fork increased, then the length of the tube to achieve resonance will increase because of the high amplitude of the vibration. The resonance of the open-closed tube was found through these steps. First, the tube was filled with water with an inner tube inside the outer tube. The water temperature was measured.
The third peak consisted of all four colors and finally the large peak consists of green and blue. Orange dyes would probably have the more noticeable peaks at the shorter wavelengths because both red and yellow both have peaks at the shorter wavelengths. Purple dyes would most likely have one distinct peak for a short wavelength and then one distinct peak for the longer wavelength because red has peaks at short wavelengths and blue has peaks at long wavelengths. The data observed looks almost nothing like the D2L data. Errors that could have caused this could be incorrectly using the fiber optic tool to measure the light being emitted.
This was proved by utilizing the IR spectrum to verify the C=O was not in the final product as it lacked the 1640 cm-1 peak. The melting point of 113-115 degrees C proved that the final product obtained was the E-Stilbene. The TLC plate proved that the E and the Z product was produced, show cased by the double intensity of the DCM spot to the final product’s spot, both which had an Rf of 0.92. The double intensity proved that both products were produced, but through heating and filtering, the Z-Stilbene was
5 Electroencephalography (EEG) sensors Fig.6 EEG Fabricated Headset The sensor sends the analog brainwave signal into the instrumentation amplifier circuit. C.Instrumentation Amplifiers The amplitude of analog brainwaves is in between the range of 150 – 250 micro volts (μV). This is very low. For processing, at least amplitude above 2 volt is needed. For this a high gain and low noise amplifier is needed.
Also the error bars on the time distance are present but they are so small it is not a significant enough number to show on the graph. The error bars are the same as the uncertainty on the instruments. The data points on the graph show that the line of best fit includes all the data within the error bars and so the data is moderately precise and the results are reliable. The limitations of the experiment were that the exact measurement of the distance and time were both done by hand and so there is human error involved. Also we can see that because the data was taken at a certain time the results will not work for all times of the day.
The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate.
Thus, a higher percent yield was calculated for acetaminophen. Although, a second filtration was performed; however, a very low concentration of acetaminophen was recovered as a result of human errors, and the transfer of solution/solid contributed to product loss. However, the mass use to calculate percent yield was the first mass recorded because it may be more consistent than the mass measured after the second filtration. However, for further experiments, the percent yield must be calculated with the corresponding mass of product (actual yield) even though there is loss of product, the actual yield is the final concentration of the recovered product in the experiment. Thus, the results may be more conclusive if the actual percent yield was used.
At this point, the change in pH with respect to volume was minimal since these values were far from the equivalence point, which occurred experimentally at 27.41 mL. This can also be seen on the graph as the plateau before the inflection point occured. To calculate the Ka of the acid, the following formula is
Having Trial #1 and #2 being only 1 decimal place different from each other was very surprising to me, and indicated high precision. This led to a low standard deviation and a low %RSD. I think consistency of observations was what led to a high precision for me. When I added reagents to the Al(NO3)3, all the trials typically had the same observations. I stopped adding things like HCl and ammonium acetate immediately after I saw a stable