Houtermans Theory Of Nuclear Fusion

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ABSTRACT
In our search for plausible forms of clean energy to replace fossil fuels, nuclear fusion is one of the most promising options. The purpose of this study is to investigate in detail the intricacies of nuclear fusion, the criteria that must be met in order to produce it, our progress in successfully inducing it, and why nuclear fusion is beneficial in relation to traditional fossil fuels. This is done by examining and analyzing information and data from scholarly sources. Concepts such as binding energy and the Lawson criterion, and machines such as tokamaks and stellarators, are discussed in this study in particular. The results
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This idea was then tested by Mark Oliphant, who, referring to Rutherford’s nuclear transmutation experiments, successfully fused hydrogen isotopes in his lab, and his conclusions supported those of Atkinson and Houtermans. Building upon the work of his peers, Hans Bethe used this new concept of nuclear fusion to explain how stars produce energy, and work out the steps of the main cycle of nuclear fusion in stars. However, largely funded research into nuclear fusion only began due to military incentives, during the Second World War, as part of the Manhattan Project. This research cumulated in the development and testing of the first hydrogen bomb, the Ivy Mike, which used nuclear fusion to produce a massive explosion. Research into harnessing the power of nuclear fusion for civil purposes only started in the 1950s, and this will be a large focus of this study.
WHAT IS NUCLEAR FUSION?
First of all, we must define nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei collide at high speeds to produce energy and form a new, larger nucleus, along with other products in some cases.

OTHER KEY
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For example, the energy released by a deuterium-tritium collision, both isotopes of hydrogen, is 17.6 MeV. One gram of matter used in this reaction would result in an incredible 339 GJ. In comparison, only 13.6 eV is released by adding an electron to a hydrogen nucleus. While individual atoms in nuclear fission do produce more energy than individual atoms in nuclear fusion, because atoms are much lighter in fusion than in fission, the energy per unit of mass is far greater in nuclear fusion than in fission. This means we cannot disregard the immense potential in nuclear fusion as a clean energy source.
NUCLEAR FUSION IN NATURE: STARS The most significant fusion processes in our universe are the ones found in stars, which provide the energy for the stars to burn and shine. Two different cycles in particular occur most within stars, depending on their size. Figure 3: The proton-proton chain
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