The purpose of this experiment is to perform a Friedel-Crafts reaction of ferrocene. Friedel-Crafts reactions are examples of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions in which the electrophile is a carbocation or an acylium ion. These reactions form a carbon-carbon bond and allows for either an alkyl or acyl group to be substituted onto an aromatic ring. Figure 1 shows the general mechanism for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene. First, the alkyl halide reacts with a strong Lewis Acid catalyst, usually aluminum chloride, to form a complex, which will then lose the halide to the Lewis acid to give the electrophilic acylium ion.
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
Lab Report 10: Nitration of Bromobenzene Raekwon Filmore CM 244 Section 40 March 27, 2018 Introduction: For this experiment, nitration of bromobenzene was the focus of the lab. The benzene is an aromatic compound and when it reacts with wither a mixture of sulfuric acid or nitric acid creates what is known as a nitro group.
An electrophile means an electron seeking species. Haloarenes will undergo the usual benzene ring reactions such as nitration, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts reactions and sulphonation. Before discussing all the electrophilic reactions, we need to understand the nature of Reaction of Haloarenes with respect to the attack of an electrophile. We know that haloarenes are electron-rich compounds.
One purpose of a Wittig reaction is the formation of alkenes from aldehydes or ketones employing a carbo-phosphorous ylide, which is stabilized vie resonance to allow for the carbon bonded to phosphorus to be deprotonate from by a base (Ketcha, 142). The resonating ylide will react with the electrophilic carbonyl carbon of its aromatic aldehyde to produce a betaine intermediate, or a crystalized 4
When an aromatic compound such as phenol undergoes nitration, it does so through an Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS). Undergoing this reaction requires two steps. The first step is the addition of the electrophile, which in this lab was the Nitronium ion formed by the dilute nitric acid solution. This is the rate determining step for this reaction, as during this step aromaticity is lost and the arenium ion is formed. The position of the electrophile to be added is determined by how well the arenium ion can be stabilized once the initial addition occurs.
One noticeable exception is the so-called “Atwal modification” of the Biginelli reaction. In this scheme, an enone(a) is first condensed with a suitable protected urea or thiourea derivative(b) under almost neutral conditions. Deprotection of the resulting 1,4-dihydropyrimidine(c) with HCl or TFA leads to the desired DHPMs.20 Scheme-3: Shutalev et al described another approach to DHPMs synthesis. This synthesis is based on the condensation of readily available R-tosylated (thio)ureas(a) with the enolates of acetoacetates or 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The resulting hexahydropyrimidines(b) need not to be isolated and can be converted directly into DHPMs.
As shown by Figure 3 and Figure 4, the structure of the molecule indicates the leaving groups to be primary. The leaving groups in this case are chlorine and bromine. This is important because the reaction was a bimolecular nucleophilic
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4.
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.)
You wish to substitute the bromine in the following molecules with a nucleophile. Explain whether the given molecule would react by S_N 1 or S_N 2 mechanism and explain why. 1-methyl-1-bromo-cyclohexane: S_N 1 mechanism because after Br leaves (leaving group departure) then it is a tertiary carbocation which is favored more in this type of mechanism. 1-bromopropane: This would react by S_N 2 mechanism because it is a primary alkyl halide, which undergo this type of mechanism.
The purpose of this lab is to use the Diels-Alder reaction to combine anthracene and maleic anhydride. Named after its two founders the Diels-Alder reaction is the addition of a conjugated diene (electron rich compound) with a dienophile (electron poor compound). (1) These compounds will be combined using [4+2] cycloaddition, where the numbers 4 and 2 come from the number of π electrons that are used in each compound to synthesize the product. (2) This experiment comes at the cost of losing two π bonds to form two new sigma (σ) bonds in the cyclic compound. (2)