The principal arteries of supply to the head and neck are the “two common carotids; they ascend in the neck and each divides into two branches. One is the external carotid, supplying the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck and two the internal carotid, supplying to a great extent the parts within the cranial and orbital cavities” (Common). Coronary Arteries are the network of arteries that encircles the heart to provide its blood supply. The two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch from the aorta as it arises from the left ventricle. The left coronary artery is significantly larger and supplies the left heart.
1.Spinal cord - is a long, and tubular shaped structure that contains nervous tissue and cells located at the end of the brainstem and continues down to the bottom of the vertebral column. It used to connect the peripheral nervous system and the brain. It acts as sensory system and transmitted message to the brain. 2.Conus medullaris - is a tapered structure that located in the most distal part of the spinal cord and end with filum terminale. 3.Cauda equina - It makes of spinal nerves and spinal nerve root that located near the first lumbar vertebra of spinal cord.
The supraspinatus originates at the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus. Its function is to assists the deltoid abduct the arm while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint. The infraspinatus originates at the infraspinatus fossa on the posterior surface of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humorous. Its function is to adduct and laterally rotates the shoulder at the G/H joint while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H
The anal canal and surrounding soft tissue were assessed for the morphology of the IAS, EAS and Puborectalis muscle. Endoanal Ultrasound (EAUS) describes the ASC as being divided in to 3 levels: upper, middle and lower . Therefore, we measured the thicknesses of IAS at mid sphincter level at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o’ clock positions and the thicknesses of EAS at middle and lower sphincter levels at the same positions. The thickness of Puborectalis muscle at 6, 9 and 12 o’ clock positions was also measured (upper sphincter
In the classic nomenclature(28) the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum is divided into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe (Fig 2 and 3), by two deep fissures known as the primary fissure between the anterior and posterior lobes and the posterolateral fissure between the tonsil and flocculonodular lobe(24,25). The anterior lobe is bound anteriorly by superior medullary velum and posteriorly by the primary fissure. The vermis and hemispheres in the anterior lobe are further divided into lobules by two fissures namely precentral fissure and the preculminate fissure. The vermis is divided into three lobules namely lingula, central lobule and culmen. Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus.
LUMEN=the lumen of arteries is relatively narrow to maintain high blood pressure. ENDOTHELIUM=forms the inner layer of an artery wall, also known as the tunica interna. It consists mainly of endothelial cells. SMOOTH MUSCLE= smooth muscle and elastic tissues
The reflex causes the ipsilateral pupil to dilate (Campbell & DeJong, 2005). The ciliospinal reflex is a test of ocular sympathetic function (Turner, 2012). The ciliospinal reflex depends primarily on the integrity of the sensory nerve fibers from the area of the skin being stimulated, the upper thoracic sympathetic motor neurons, and the ascending cervical sympathetic chain (Rand Swenson, 2008). The sympathetic fibers that supply the dilator pupillae muscles are believed to originate in the posterolateral hypothalamus. The sympathetic fibers project and synapse in the sympathetic cell column from vertebrae C8 to T2.
The pharynx is a muscular tube that extends supero-inferiorly from the base of the cranium to the level of the inferior surface of the body of the sixth cervical vertebra. The pharynx lies dorsal to the nasal cavity, the oral cavity and the larynx. The nasal portion of the nasopharynx has bony elements in its wall and thus it is rigid, whereas the pharyngeal portion is contractile as a result of the muscular nature of its wall.4 The relationship between craniofacial morphology and respiratory function has been studied extensively since the beginning of 20th century54. Some authors claim that patients with deficient respiratory functions present with lip incompetency, increased anterior face height, maxillary constriction, protruded maxillary
(“15 Fascinating Facts You Didn’t Know About Your Brain, safelaunch.org”) It is so vital to human life that almost nothing can survive without it. Almost every animal on Earth has a Nervous System, which includes the brain, and, many, a spinal cord, and networks of nerves that run through bodies. Humans are no exception. The first part of the Nervous System is the Central Nervous System. “Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of mostly of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.” (“Anatomy of the Brain, mayfieldclinic.com”) The cerebrum is the biggest part in the human brain, and is divided into lobes including the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
Throughout the rest of history the circulatory system has continued to go through considerable and momentous reformations. All vertebrates now possess an endothelium. During the divergence of urochordates and cephalochordates, was when researchers first found the endothelium to appear, which leads some scientists to believe cardiovascular evolution really began somewhere closer to five hundred million years ago. Next scientists pondered why the endothelium was advantageous or beneficial to early vertebrates. Many have hypothesized