Nurse Burnout Research

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Introduction
This chapter provides a background of nurse burnout and their effect on quality of care and patients outcomes. It also includes a description of the purpose, research questions ,hypotheses and significance to conduct this study in Jordan along and the definition of the study variables.
Background
Burnout is the term often used, and the concept of burnout has important attention in the area of nursing. Maslach, one of the first researchers to begin investigating burnout, described it as “a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people in some capacity”
(Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Freudenberger (1974) first described burnout as
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Key words used in searching are "burnout",
"quality of care", and "patients outcomes". Research article examining at least one of the key words were selected for review and discussion in this chapter. Almost the entire study variables will be discussed in this chapter through reviewing relevant literature.
Burnout
Burnout is defined as a psychological syndrome which characterized by three concepts: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion refers to lack of energy and feeling that one’s emotion is used up to increase psychological demands. Depersonalization refers to treat other as objects rather than people through uncaring attitudes and behaviors. Diminished personal accomplishment is to evaluate oneself negatively because of failure a result it occurs when the individual’s external demands become higher than their coping ability.(Maslach, Schaufeli, leiter., 2001) .
Many studies revealed that there is a high prevalence of burnout among nurses worldwide, it can affect approximately 45% of medical and nursing staff .(Abdo, El-Sallamy, El-Sherbiny,
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2010). Some studies show that there was an high rate of burnout among nursing staff , in contrast other studies found there was low rate of burnout, these differences is related to culture differences, health care system variation, there was also different designs and tools to assess burnout syndrome. (Abdulla,
Al-Qahtani, & Al-Kuwari, 2011). One study revealed that burnout syndrome is common among critical care nurses, because they work with more critical and traumatic patients burnout syndrome is not only affect the nurse but extend to their quality of care that delivered for their patient.(Moss, Good, Gozal, Kleinpell, & Sessler., 2016). Organizational and environment factors such as excessive workload, staffing shortage, lack of empowerment lead to burnout which compromise nurse’s ability to provide high quality care.( McHugh, Kutney, Cimiotti,
Sloane, & Aiken., 2011).
Burnout ,quality of care and patients outcome
Different studies have explained the relation between burnout syndrome, stress in work environment ,and patients satisfaction which assessed the quality of nursing care provided, the high quality care the more patient satisfaction.( You, Aiken, Sloane, Liu, He, Hu,& et

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