Researchers need to explain to the participants about certain information, then the participants consider whether to participate or not. Without consent form, participants would not know what they are getting themselves into, how long would the observation will be or is there any potential harm for the participants themselves. When doing an experiment without informed consent, research would not know their participants background history where they have experienced being stalk by people. In this case, Middlemist, Knowles and Matter (1976) could put someone’s mental state vulnerable because it might be one out the sixty the participants has trauma people observing them without permission. If the participants realized that they are being observed it could lead to anxiety.
The researchers also failed to examine their own role during analysis of data in preventing any potential bias. Although the authors claimed that the study was rigorous the authors failed to explain what was done to ensure this. Furthermore, the authors did not explain the data analysis in-depth. The authors merely explained the Anderson and Jack (1991) framework. The researchers also did not mention all information regarding credibility of findings.
It’s also difficult to generalize the results because the sample sizes are usually very small. Other limitations include the ability of the participants to accurately and honestly express their feelings and thoughts based on what the researcher’s topic is. The use of phenomenology requires the researcher to interpret the data which can cause bias and pre-conceived notions about the topic. In certain circumstances the findings may be difficult to replicate in other settings and are then unable to compare to larger
The authors did an outstanding job presenting their findings in a way in which the reader can make their own judgments about the topic. Additionally, the authors did an exceptional job outlining the pros and cons of their own study. Graham and Louis 2010 state “We recognize this study has a number of limitation” (p.173). The authors recognize the findings may be inaccurate because of the size and interest of the sample population. The authors concludes this article with a detailed explanation why an individual could question the foundation on which their hypothesis is built.
Our research methods are successful in providing validity, but only to the extent that the researcher utilizes them to the best capacity; validity is increased when careful consideration is given to the particular method used. Critics of external validity must also question how important it is to the study at hand, and whether the experiment is looking to generalize across situations or to further the knowledge of a given theory. It is not so much that our methods are bad, as it is that they aren’t self-correcting. It is the job of the researcher to determine which method is the best match for their study in order to minimize error and maximize validity by controlling for threats within that method. Depending on the method of research, a loss in one form of validity might be worth the trade-off for higher validity in another area more meaningful to the current research.
If the data fails to do so, it is misleading and should be neglected. Reviewing the data allows the researcher to avoid any errors and secondary data, which may be irrelevant to the study. Some research tools, such as surveys may be incomplete. The individuals filling them out may not understand a question or provide inadequate answers due to lack of knowledge. Therefore it is very important for researchers to select an appropriate audience; individuals who are able to relate to the study and the experiment.
Furthermore, the researcher avoided putting participants in a difficult situation due to their participation. Participants were free to abandon the study at any time of the process and inconsequential. This means they adhered to the study in free and informed manner. The data collected were used exclusively for the purposes of this study, and destroyed after its use to preserve confidentiality. Finally, the results of this research were communicated electronically to the
Although during the early and mid-1900s few nurses contributed to this foundation initiated by Nightingale, the nursing profession has more recently provided major leadership for improving care through application of research findings in practice. The plea that each nurse must care enough about her own practice ensure it is based on the best possible information is not new. Recognition of importance of use of evidence from research in order to rationalize nursing interventions cannot be over emphases. Nursing research encompasses a holistic approach and views the treatment of patient, family members and caregivers as a whole. By utilizing this holistic approach, quality of care is enhanced and the patient will receive the best care at minimum cost.
The unwillingness of management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality will also limited the study. Some respondents may not give the required full information because of the fear that they have on this area. Insufficiencies of time provided to conduct this research will also one potential limitation of the study. 1.9 Assumption of the study During the study various assumptions will be considered; respondents will give accurate information regarding the sources, types and management of conflict in the university. the respondents are conversant with the various types of conflicts and its management in the university.