Bone is a complex, highly organized and specialized connective tissue. It is characterized physically by the fact that it is a tissue that is hard, rigid and strong, and microscopically by the presence of relatively few cells and much intercellular substance formed of collagen fibers and stiffening substances [1,2]. Bone consists of 65% mineral, 35% organic matrix, cells, and water. The bone mineral is in the form of small crystals in the shape of needles, plates, and rods located within and between collagen fibers. The mineral is largely impure hydroxyapatite, Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, containing constituents such as carbonate, citrate, magnesium, fluoride, and strontium incorporated into the crystal lattice or absorbed onto the crystal surface.
Where medial plantar nerve is associated with flexor hallucis brevis. Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve is associated with adductor halluces muscle and superfacial branch is associated with digiti minimi brevis muscle. Fourth Layer The fourth layer of intrinsic muscles is made with the plantar and dorsal interossei muscles. These two muscles work differently. The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate.
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.
Also SSV is in danger of becoming distended or having thrombosis . On the other hand, internal thoracic artery (ITA) arises as a major branch of the subclavian artery in the neck, it passes posterior to the clavicle and the large veins in the region and anterior to the pleural cavity.
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
Clinicians refer to this variation as a concha bullosa. Also, there are also instances where the middle turbinate develops in a sigmoid shape – with a superior convexity, and an inferior concavity. This condition is referred to as a paradoxical middle turbinate. The uncinate process may deviate from its typical posteroinferior course and arise in a medial fashion that obstructs the middle meatus and the ethmoid infundibulum. In cases where hypoplastic maxillary sinuses are present, lateral elevation of the uncinate process until it fuses with the medial orbital wall can impede the integrity of the orbit.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
Patient’s laboratory findings were ; creatinin: 1.02 mg/dl, albumin: 2.9 mg/dl, Total bilurubin: 4.0 mg/dl, ALT:22 IU/L AST:20 IU/L, hemoglobin:10.6 gr/dl, platelet: 232.000, protrombin time: 18.7 sn, INR: 1.37, serum protein elektrophoresis: beta-gamma bridging, serum-ascites albumin gradient: 2.1 gr/dl, AFP: 6000 IU/ml, CA 19.9-CA 125-CEA: negatif, HBsAg (+), HBeAg (-), HBV DNA: 61.700 IU/ml, HDV (-), AntiHCV (-), markers for otoimmun hepatites and other etiological tests were negative. The patient was diagnosed as chronic dekompansated liver parenchymal disease due to ethanol taking and chronic heatitis B (HBV) infection. His Child-Pugh score was 9.0 (B) and MELD score was 15. He had not hepatic encephalophaty and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis infection. Stage 2 oesophageal varices were present at his gastroscopic study.
The series of bones found at the tip of the hand are the distal phalanges, the smallest among the three, five on each hand. All the phalanges articulate with one another through interphalageal articulations. The distal phalanges on their palmar surface are flat, small and with a roughened, elevated surface of horseshoe, supporting the digital pulp. The tips of these phalanges, called apical tuffs, are flat and wide. The thumb gives an insertion for the flexor pollicis longus or FPL, ungual fossa, and a pair of ungual spines.
The proposed core advantages of self-ligating system19 ● More certain full archwire engagement ● Low friction between the bracket and the archwire ● Greater arch expansion with less incisor proclination ● Faster archwire ligation and removal Particularly, claims that more stable transverse arch expansion with minimal incisor proclination can be achieved with self-ligating systems, offer a paradigm shift in treatment that entails fewer extractions and more arch expansion.17 However, it subsequently raised questions about the stability of results and the feasibility of long-term retention provided by this technique.16 Dwight Damon (1998)17 clarified the dubiety with his philosophy of ‘Bioadaptive response’ and ‘Biozone’. Bioadaptive
The SI joint just isn 't the simplest joint to get into for interventional techniques. Fluoroscopic assistance is relevant, as the joint is jagged and irregular. The entry into it may take an exclusive angle. Figuring out the specific entry factor with the actual time x-ray could make the difference between a positive procedure with a joyful patient versus a neglected joint and a sufferer ultimate in soreness. Along with the interventional soreness efforts, further cure choices comprise bodily cure, anti-inflammatory remedy, chiropractic cure, and possibly acupuncture and therapeutic massage.
One such study by Faden et al, allowed the researchers to classify Erlenmeyer’s flask deformity into three groups. The first category describes the typical, common shape of the bone associated with EFD where a normal di-metaphyseal is not present. It is named EFD-T and it appears as a relatively normal trabecular (spongy) bone. This type of EFD is seen in frontometaphyseal dysplasia, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, diaphyseal dysplasia-Engelmann type, metaphyseal dysplasia-Pyle type, Melnick–Needles osteodysplasty, and otopalatodigital syndrome type I. The second category describes the atypical type of EFD (EFD-A) as the bone lacks the normal modeling of the di-metaphyseal and an unusual appearance of the trabecular bone.