Nutrition Literature Review

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Name of Department: Dept. Food Science and Nutrition
Name of Scholar: Namrata. Nitin. Bagle
Title: Impact of Feeding Practices on Nutritional Status and Body Fat of 12- 36 months old children.
Area of Study: To examine the association between young child diet and BMI as well as body fat in children in the age group of 12- 36 months in Mumbai city. Background: Globally, obesity has become a public health challenge even among children. Rapid weight gain during infancy is one of the strongest risk factors for obesity later in childhood and has also been associated with increased blood pressure and increased risk of diabetes. (Broekaert et al., 2005)
Silva et al., (2004) stated that monitoring patterns of growth during infancy may be important
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Early experiences with food are especially important for infants and toddlers, not only because food provides nutrients, but also because very young children are developing taste preferences and eating habits that may influence food choices throughout their lives (Menella.,et.al; 2001; Beauchamp.,et al; 2009).
Infant and young child nutrition is important as the growth rate in the life of human beings is maximum during the first year of life and infant feeding practices comprising of both breast feeding and complementary feeding have a major role in determining the nutritional status of the child. Introduction of breast milk is especially encouraged immediately after birth as colostrum provides all the nutrients that are needed by the infant in this early period.
Breast feeding is strongly recommended as the mode of nutrition of choice for newborn babies as well as infants. From birth to the age of six months, exclusive breast feeding is recommended, and constitutes appropriate feeding for the infant (Kramer and Kakuma,
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Complementary feeding starts when breast milk alone cannot meet the child’s nutritional needs, and other foods and liquids are needed in addition to breast milk. Introduction of complementary food is a critical step in the life of the infant, and current recommendations regarding the introduction of solid food are that it should be done after six months of age.
Breastfeeding: Breastfeeding is recognized as the ideal feeding for infants, due to its potential for health maintenance and disease prevention (Raisler et al., 1999). Among the multiple health benefits associated with breastfeeding, a protective effect from obesity has been recognized. However, breastfeeding rates, particularly those for exclusive breastfeeding are less than ideal. Worldwide, initiation rates of breastfeeding are currently near the WHO standard (Lawrence et al., 2011), yet globally only 34.6% of infants up to 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed.
Breastfeeding is nearly universal in India, but very few children are put to the breast immediately after

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