After doing my research with these three articles I 've come to a conclusion that stops question and frisk is very effective. As much as it does not reduce crime it provides a sense of safety to the officer when he stops the pursuant. A police officer should have a reasonable suspicion to stop and frisk his pursuant. According to the article, The right to investigate and New York "Stop and Frisk" law " Mere suspicion is not enough but the knowledge and experience gained by trained officers should be considered by the court in determining if there was a reasonable caused"(235). According to Stop and Frisk (A Case Study in Judicial Control of the Police) by Herman Schwartz, " the power to search, the New York "stop and frisk" statutes provides temporary questioning of a person in public places search for a weapon"(434). An officer has the right to stop an individual in public if he has a reasonable doubt of suspicion to temporary stop and frisks the individual. The statistic has shown that many officers have targeted the minorities in the stop and frisk. According to An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex Kiss " the number of arrests of each group in the previous year black were stopped 23% and Hispanics 39% more often than whites"(19). Minorities are stopped twice as often for violent crimes and a
“...Much of the recent crime increase threatens the vitality of America’s cities–and thousands of lives–it is not, in itself, the greatest danger in today’s war on cops. The greatest danger lies, rather, in the delegitimation of law and order itself’ (Mac Donald). In the book “The War on Cops: How the New Attack on Law and Order Makes Everyone Less Safe,” published in the year of 2016, author Heather Mac Donald provides credible evidence to expand on her viewpoint of our country’s current criminal crisis. In addition to “The War on Cops, Mac Donald has written two other books. Her works “Are Cops Racist?” of 2003 and “The Burden of Bad Ideas: How Modern Intellectuals Misshape Our Society” of 2000 contain ideas similar to those expressed in “The War on Cops.” The powerful stance Mac Donald takes on certain themes expressed throughout “The War on Cops” direct the reader’s understanding towards the flaws of America’s governmental systems, revealing the backstory and complexity of racism and criminal justice behind our “war on cops.”
BELLIN, J. (2014). THE INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONSTITUTIONALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW YORK CITY "STOP AND FRISK". Boston University Law Review, 94(5), 1495-1550.
In his essay “Arrested Development: The Conservative Case Against Racial Profiling” published in the New Republic on September 10, 2001, professor James Forman Jr. illustrates his disagreement with racial profiling. Forman Jr. is a professor at Yale Law School. He teaches Constitutional Law and seminars on race and the criminal justice system. In his piece, Forman primary goal is to create understanding about the effectiveness of racial profiling and how this affects the black community especially youths. Forman achieves this by appealing to a liberal audience. Moreover, Forman’s essay was published in a newspaper which targeted audience are individuals open to new ideas and opinions, and individuals advocating for social reform. Also, another important aspect is that during his essay, Forman attacks the conservative party which also gives a clear idea of his intended audience. By establishing his credibility
New York Police Officers feel no commitment in having to treat any black or Hispanic with respect because of their race. The generic debate made by Bob Herbert in his work, Jim Crow Policing, is that stops are a representation of cops being racist and harassers as well. More precisely Herbert feuds that racial profiling has become a tool of harassment. Herbert states, “Rather than a legitimate crime-fighting tool, these stops are a despicable racially oriented tool of harassment”(NY Times Herbert). In the passage, Herbert is specifying that blacks and Hispanics were commonly stopped and frisked for their race. Not to mention that the NY Police would not always do a report on all the stops they made. Herbert stated, “These encounters with
In 1968, stop and frisk was based on strict guidelines that explained how far an officer can frisk someone according to the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments. Behind the police officers’ stop and frisks, the strategies of broken windows policing and the zero-tolerance policy were introduced. Broken windows theory began in New York during the year of 1982, and former Mayor Giuliani of New York created zero-tolerance policy in 1997. Broken windows was a known policing strategy throughout all departments in the nation. Broken windows was a policing strategy that gave officers the decision to choose what crimes to stop at the officer’s own discretion. Although broken windows theory was effective in reducing crime rates
It is stated in Broken Windows Theory that if you deal with the small crimes then it will help deter the larger ones. Stop and frisk is supposed to help deter the smaller crimes, however, many believed that there was too much emphasis on Broken Windows and that 's what lead to the stop and frisk procedures getting out of hand. While the city has all but stopped doing stop and frisk, broken windows still remains. It is unclear if Bratton and de Brasio will budge on broken windows. For example, the city will no longer arrest people for publicly possessing under 25 grams of marijuana which is a common broken windows
We live in a society where ethnic minorities are target for every minimal action and/or crimes, which is a cause to be sentenced up to 50 years in jail. African Americans and Latinos are the ethnic minorities with highest policing crimes. In chapter two of Michelle Alexander’s book, The Lockdown, we are exposed to the different “crimes” that affects African American and Latino minorities. The criminal justice system is a topic discussed in this chapter that argues the inequality that people of color as well as other Americans are exposed to not knowing their rights. Incarceration rates, unreasonable suspicions, and pre-texts used by officers are things that play a huge role in encountering the criminal justice system, which affects the way
As citizens of America, we are taught to believe that we are going to be protected by the police and the constitution. In reality the police that are on beat and the courts are finding ways to violate our constitutional rights. Police are finding ways to violate our fourth amendment rights in such ways that makes civilians second guessing whether they are here to serve and protect or just to meet a certain quota. Stop and frisk was implemented to stop the crimes that are on the streets but, instead they are causing racial profiling by the police to African Americans and Latinos. The police are over using and abusing “Stop and Frisk” so they can make arrest and to put fear into young adult’s life. The civilians are afraid and do not respect these officers.
Stop and frisk has been a highly conversed topic within the general public within recent years. Many people think that these are just a way to profile possible offenders and treat them as guilty before they do anything wrong. Our book describes how that is not true because a stop and frisk must meet certain requirements in order to be valid. A major case that was held in regards to stop and frisk was Terry v. Ohio and this case determined that a police officer must meet two requirements in order for the stop to be valid. The first one is that either a crime has been committed or will be committed and the suspect is possibly armed and dangerous. The second requirement is that the officer identify himself or herself and make reasonable inquiries.
In summary, "stop and frisk" should not be a law anymore because it does not help our community, in fact, it ruins it. The primary reason that shows why to stop and frisk ought not to exist as a law is because guiltless individuals are getting accused of unsafe individual activities. Nevertheless, people still believe that "stop and frisk" protect them and that people from different races are a danger to the society. What people are claiming is false claims because it is not proven by actual statistics. Some people still think that "stop and frisk" is a law that helps bring peace to the nations. Seriously? How could today 's society be so gullible to the point where they agree with a law that destroys our society instead of support it. We should all come together and stand
Certain ethnic communities are targets of racial profiling and create harmful stereotypes. An article titled "Racial Profiling: Is racial profiling a necessary police practice?" presented statistics stating the percentage of people stopped and frisked by New York police in 2011. The statistics stated that 52.9% of those stopped were African American, 33.7% were Latino, and 9.3% were white. Donald Tomaskovic-Devey and Patricia Waren writers of "Racial Profiling Leads to Discrimination" conducted research on traffic stops and police searches. In their article they discussed their findings and noted, "The most recent data (for 2007) shows African Americans were 78% more likely than whites to be searched. Hispanics were 118% more likely than whites
In the wake of rising protests and criticism of police after the deaths of Eric Garner, and Akai Gurley, George L. Kelling, a criminologist and professor, and William J. Bratton, former police commissioner of the New York City Police, come together to present their argument for Broken Windows Policing (BWP). This article they collaborated on mainly focuses on topics that certain “police critics” have brought up against BWP and attempts to prove that BWP is something that should continue to be both practiced, and invested in. Most of these topics are actually not attacking the efficacy of BWP but its consequences, such as Search Question and Frisk (this method of BWP is known as SQF) and counterproductive, BWP leads to over incarceration, BWP
The job of the police officers is to protect all citizens from any threat and help us to be safe on the streets. Stop and frisk is a practice that the New York City Police Department uses as a way to fight crime, however, stop and frisk is unjust and has resulted in racial discrimination by officers, as well as an abuse of power. Over the years many civilians have been stopped and frisked by the police, this irritates some people as they feel they are stopped purposely or for no reason. So can police frisking in some cases go too far?
past two years. The results suggest that a third of the black respondents (34%) have