Designing a Therapeutic Dosing Regimen for a Novel Potential Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a naturally occurring steroid hormone, which acts as a positive allosteric modulator on the GABAA receptor, producing anaesthetic, anxiolytic and sedative effects. The notable exception to this appears to be in the brains of adolescents, where it acts as a GABAA antagonist, causing mood swings. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.) It is found to be secreted in the urine of pregnant women (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.), and levels have been found to naturally fluctuate during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle (Luisi S, 2000), and stress (Girdler SS, 2001). The chemical properties of allopregnanolone make it easy for the molecules to pass from the
Comparative Study of Lorazepam and Alprazolam as Premedication For Patient Posted For Orthopaedic Surgery. Introduction The main aim of premedication is to allay anxiety, block autonomic reflexes, produce amnesia, facilitate induction of anaesthesia, reduce stress response to anaesthesia and provide analgesia, if necessary. Anxiety of surgery is associated with various neuroendocrine changes1 like elevation of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in serum. For anxiolysis and lessen the psychological effects of hospital experiences, prior to anaesthesia, premedication was administered.2 Most commonly, non parenteral route is preferred for initiation of sedation and premedication administration in the clinical
Loperamide is a potent Mu-opioid receptor agonist [13, 15] that acts on the myenteric plexus of the gut wall. It inhibits acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus and inhibits the peristalsis. It also increases the tone of anal sphincter. Loperamide also inhibits the secretions directly by interacting with calmodulin, this may be responsible for the anti diarrheal action.  Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy.
Prolongs levodopa action Useful in wearing off events and motor fluctuations Increases t1/2 of levodopa Increases the availability of levodopa in CNS Useful in advanced cases of Parkinson’s disease Useful in on-off phenomenon Mechanism Intracerebral degradation of dopamine is retarded by inhibition of MAO-B Inhibits metabolism of levodopa by COMT Drug Name MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) inhibitors Selegiline Rasagiline COMT (Catecholamine o-methyl transferse) inhibitors Entacapone, Tolcapone Sr No 5. 6. Disadvantages Dizziness, lethargy, anticholinergic effects, and sleep disturbance, Nausea and vomiting Anticholinergic side effects Sedation and mental confusion in elderly more pronounced Advantages Modest anti Parkinsonian effect Can be used as short course with levodopa for motor fluctuations Less side effects compared to
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)
• Administration errors • Transcription errors • Failure to follow proper medical guidelines ( double checking the right drug, doses, routing, time and patient Epinephrine is a catecholamine that stimulates alpha (α) , beta 1 (β-1) and beta 2 (β-2)adrenergic effector dose dependent. Epinephrine influences its effects on the heart, vascular and other smooth muscles. It’s usually administrated for both anaphylaxis and myocardial infarction. Epinephrine is available in different concentrations and it is administered in a variable type of specific to each indication. Doses for Epinephrine Base on Indication: Indication Dose Administration Anaphylactic 0.3-0.5mg of 1:1,000 Intramuscular (IM) Anaphylactic 0.1mg of 1:10,000 IV push over 5 minutes shock Myocardial 1mg of 1:10,000 IV push Infarction concentration What could’ve been done by the medical team to prevent these errors?
Cortisol, known as the primary stress hormone, is a steroid hormone that is formed in the adrenal glands in reaction to stress (Talbott, 2007). Cortisol is necessary in the body for it controls stress, but too much release of cortisol can badly affect a person’s body, and some of which are hair loss and weight gain. According to Malesky and Kittel (2001), large amount of cortisol in the body enhances hair loss. On the other hand, vast amount of cortisol in the body enhances craving for food that could give stress relief. Such relief foods usually have high amount of fat and sugar, which can lead to weight gain (Cassel and Gleaves,
Introduction: Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al.
When this takes place, very different changes occur in the nervous system and other target tissue. The hormones involved in this occurrence have a pharmacological effect on the target tissue. Pharmacological effects can be therapeutic, toxic, or lethal. The term “therapeutic effect” describes a situation whereby a drug successfully treats a given condition. Toxicity, on the other hand, results from harmful pharmacological effects.
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,