Designing a Therapeutic Dosing Regimen for a Novel Potential Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a naturally occurring steroid hormone, which acts as a positive allosteric modulator on the GABAA receptor, producing anaesthetic, anxiolytic and sedative effects. The notable exception to this appears to be in the brains of adolescents, where it acts as a GABAA antagonist, causing mood swings. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.) It is found to be secreted in the urine of pregnant women (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.), and levels have been found to naturally fluctuate during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle (Luisi S, 2000), and stress (Girdler SS, 2001).
Comparative Study of Lorazepam and Alprazolam as Premedication For Patient Posted For Orthopaedic Surgery. Introduction The main aim of premedication is to allay anxiety, block autonomic reflexes, produce amnesia, facilitate induction of anaesthesia, reduce stress response to anaesthesia and provide analgesia, if necessary. Anxiety of surgery is associated with various neuroendocrine changes1 like elevation of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in serum.
Loperamide is a potent Mu-opioid receptor agonist [13, 15] that acts on the myenteric plexus of the gut wall. It inhibits acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus and inhibits the peristalsis. It also increases the tone of anal sphincter. Loperamide also inhibits the secretions directly by interacting with calmodulin, this may be responsible for the anti diarrheal action.  Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy.
Disease modifying action in Parkinson’s disease. Prolongs levodopa action Useful in wearing off events and motor fluctuations Increases t1/2 of levodopa Increases the availability of levodopa in CNS Useful in advanced cases of Parkinson’s disease Useful in on-off phenomenon Mechanism Intracerebral degradation of dopamine is retarded by inhibition of MAO-B Inhibits metabolism of levodopa by COMT Drug Name MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) inhibitors Selegiline Rasagiline COMT (Catecholamine o-methyl transferse) inhibitors Entacapone, Tolcapone Sr No 5.
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression.
• Administration errors • Transcription errors • Failure to follow proper medical guidelines ( double checking the right drug, doses, routing, time and patient Epinephrine is a catecholamine that stimulates alpha (α) , beta 1 (β-1) and beta 2 (β-2)adrenergic effector dose dependent. Epinephrine influences its effects on the heart, vascular and other smooth muscles. It’s usually administrated for both anaphylaxis and myocardial infarction. Epinephrine is available in different concentrations
Cortisol, known as the primary stress hormone, is a steroid hormone that is formed in the adrenal glands in reaction to stress (Talbott, 2007). Cortisol is necessary in the body for it controls stress, but too much release of cortisol can badly affect a person’s body, and some of which are hair loss and weight gain. According to Malesky and Kittel (2001), large amount of cortisol in the body enhances hair loss. On the other hand, vast amount of cortisol in the body enhances craving for food that could give stress relief. Such relief foods usually have high amount of fat and sugar, which can lead to weight gain (Cassel and Gleaves,
Introduction: Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al.
When this takes place, very different changes occur in the nervous system and other target tissue. The hormones involved in this occurrence have a pharmacological effect on the target tissue. Pharmacological effects can be therapeutic, toxic, or lethal. The term “therapeutic effect” describes a situation whereby a drug successfully treats a given condition.
By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
Question / Problem: What is the evidence to recommend Trulicity (dulaglutide) to a patient who has uncontrolled glucose control, and is on metformin and insulin (levemir) and non- adherence to the insulin. Response: The trulicity is a non-insulin injectable with dosing regimen of once weekly dosing. These agents work by activating GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas, which leads to enhanced insulin release and reduced glucagon release-responses that are both glucose-dependent-with a consequent low risk for hypoglycemia.
The fast-changing pace of Internal Medicine appeals to me as a strong critical thinker. I enjoy the challenge of incorporating all spectrums of medicine into each differential diagnosis; every case is a new problem-solving opportunity. Internal Medicine, more than any other specialty, utilizes my personal knowledge, experience, and the assistance of my team in an all-encompassing analysis with the most up-to-date information for personalized care with each and every patient. Only with true understanding and a personal bond with a patient can one practice preventive medicine, which is a priority in all medicine, but especially important for Internal Medicine, where motivating lifestyle change is crucial. Internists, to me, are lifelong learners, which is why I feel the strongest connection toward the concentration of Internal Medicine.
After losing everyone she cared about and dealing with sleep deprivation, she began to go insane. In addition, her appearance progressively worsened and she started to look older than what she was – she grew gray pigments in her hair. As stated by Dr. Michael Breus in his article regarding sleep deprivation, it can have very harmful to one’s body and mind. When someone is sleep deprived, they are not able to function correctly or perform nearly to their potential. It is difficult to fully participate in any event considering that sleep deprivation causes a lack of energy and attention span which is demonstrated in the scene where Nancy loses concentration in class and falls asleep.
College can become very overwhelming and stressful for most students. Long nights of studying, troublesome exams, and lengthy papers soon begin to weigh down most college students. Staying focused becomes difficult in college and most students turn to taking "smart drugs". The most commonly abused drug amongst college students is Adderall. The generic name for Adderall is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine.