This step indicate that Grignard reagent was generated, and the extra white precipitates were magnesium. The addition of hydrochloride acid and cooling the flask contain the solution in an ice bath formed a clear solution. This solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and added with diethyl ether to form two layers: organic and aqueous. The organic layer was extracted by distillation of the aqueous layer first. Diethyl ether was used for rinsing.
Leaves containing water-soluble elements were boiled and turned from the solid phase into the liquid phase, boiling water. The calcium carbonate was added to form insoluble calcium salts with the tannins and gallic acid so that after vacuum filtration they would be removed. The sodium chloride salt was added after the vacuum filtration in order to raise the polarity of the water, making less amount of molecules soluble in it. This is because the salt takes the part of the space in water and many compounds become insoluble and are pushed out by the salt. By adding the salt we avoid the situation of getting heavy emulsion when mixing tea with methylene chloride.
The temperature of the water was then recorded to the nearest 0.1⁰C. Then the melting points of phenylacetic acid, o-anisic acid, and benzilic acid were determined by the use of a Mel-Temp. The unknown sample was obtained from the chemical stockroom. A small scale of crystals from unknown was placed in a test tube with the following solvents: cyclohexane, hexane, toluene, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, or water, to determine the appropriate solvent for the unknown. If the solute was wholly dissolved in the solvent before heating, it was recorded as a bad solvent.
Purification of brine The first step in the Solvay process is brine purification. This step is done to produce a pure sodium chloride solution. Brine contains impurities namely calcium and magnesium salts. Sulfates also can be found in some brines. These impurities have to be eliminated because they will produce unwanted insoluble salts by reacting with alkali and carbon dioxide, thus affecting the quality of the soda ash.
Na2S2O3 dissociate to thiocyanate ion and sodium ion. This thiocyanate ion is then used as seen in reaction 2 to reduce iodine into iodide, through this reaction it gets oxidised to tetrathionate ion. The concentration of free iodine in the solution is directly related to the intense dark blue colour of the solution. As the concentration drops the colour of the solution begins to become paler as lesser free iodine is being adsorbed by colloidal starch particles. A source of error may have been the time of titration of the 5ml of Na2S2O3.
Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction observed showed that there was fizzing and bubbling, this is evidence that a new gas was being produced. This new gas, CO2 was generated from the reaction. After the fizzing stopped a liquid was leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover was the NaCl and H2O 4. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor resembling vinegar (an acid).
Vitamin C titration is needed to perform this task in addition to standardizing of Iodine solution. This titration method is a redox reaction with potassium iodate in the presence of potassium iodide (Helmenstine, n.d.). The end point of the titration can be understood by the color change during titration. In this experiment, the addition of iodine to vitamin C in acidic solution with the presence of starch was stopped once color of solution started to change dark purple color from colorless
Moderate heating of the solution for a period of time is allowed to obtain a wet gel (Appendix figure 24). The wet gel may not look fully solid depending on the composition of the active added into the ethylene glycol. When all the active ingredients were dissolved in the ethylene glycol, the solution turned color from a clear red solution to a darker reddish brown color. The wet gel was observed to be slightly reddish brown in color. Before moving on to the formation of gel process, the magnetic bars were removed from all the samples.
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to titrate an unknown solid acid (KH2PO4) with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. After recording and plotting the data, the acid’s equivalence point will be recorded once the color changes. Using the equivalence point, the halfway point will be calculated, which is used to determine the acid’s equilibrium constant. The acid’s calculated equilibrium constant will be compared with the acid’s established pKa value. Eventually using the NaOH and the acid’s consumed moles, the equivalent mass will be determined.
H2SO4 and observed for the formation of bluish green colour that indicates the presence of steroids. Test for phenolic compounds By FeCl3: The guggul extracts were treated with neutral ferric chloride solution and observed for the formation of violet colour, indicating the presence of phenolic compounds. By sodium chloride test.Theguggul extracts were treated with 10% sodium chloride solution and observed for the cream colour. Test for saponins 1ml of each extracts of guggul were diluted with 20ml of distilled water and shaken well in a test tube and observed for the formation of foam on upper region of the test tube the indicate that the saponnins are present in the extracts of C.mukul Antimicrobial activity testing of the extract against the selected bacterial strains Preparation of methanol