Introduction This assignment is in two parts. The first part of this assignment would attempt to use the theories of human development to explain the child behaviour observed during child observation at the preschool while the second part of this assignment would propose an intervention on a scenario at my practice placement. I would demonstrate my critical understanding of the theories and evaluate their relevance for evidence-informed and value-based practice. I would conclude by articulating my critical appreciation of the use of theory to inform professional social work practice based on my experience from the child observation and my placement experience. The notes taken from the child observations and a chosen case from my placement
Will good parenting skills change a child’s bad behavior? Some people may say that to fix a child’s behavior parents should involve punishment. Maybe they will also say that punishment leads to having a well-disciplined child. In the article, “No Spanking, No Time-Out, No Problem,” Olga Khazan proposes a parenting intervention from a child psychologist, she utilizes it to persuade readers along with parents into believing that punishment cannot change negative behavior. Kazdin discusses the causes behind a negative behavior from a child and utilizes it to prove that punishment does not need to be utilized.
Describe Lawrence Kohlberg, a child psychologist who studied the theory of moral development, similar to Piaget and Skinner's theory, researched and examined young children by applying reward and punishment in his experimental scenarios (2014). Kohlberg was known for the “Heinz dilemma” which analyzes moral arrangement of young children by examining the way they think and evaluate pros and cons of real-life circumstances (2014). Kohlberg researched three levels: The first one is the “Preconventional Level” (2014). At these level children will follow rules so that they avoid any punishment from authority figures (2014). Knowing the differences between good and bad behavior helps children to understand the consequences when it’s related to their
The two theories and stages involved in it. Piaget observed children of different ages. From his observation, he realized that children were able to create new knowledge. There is not limit for a child to gain knowledge from the environment the child belongs to during interactions. Piaget believed that children dynamically create their own knowledge without depending on what they achieve from a teacher or parents (Kay C. Wood, 2001).
It has been noted positivism is in accordance with the empirical view that knowledge stems from human experience. This perspective has an ontological and atomistic view of the world as comprising observable features and events that interact in an observable, determined and regular manner. Positivist studies adopt usually deductive approach (Crowther and Lancaster 2008). Researcher’s role is limited to data collection and interpretation through objective approach and the research results are quantifiable and observable. Positivists view the world from a scientific point of view was seen as the way to get at truth through prediction and controlling it.
Abstract The assignment focuses on explaining and understanding the relevance of parental ethno theories in the development and rearing of a child from a psychological perspective. The assignment attempts to achieve this purpose through highlighting and linking the theories with real life incidents/situations (which the student observed at her agency). It explores all the facets of a parent-child relationship and a parent’s goal towards conditioning of their child according to their culture (the assignment focuses on child-rearing according to the Indian culture). Key word: Parental ethnotheories, culture, child. Introduction Understanding Parental-ethnotheories Parental ethnotheories are shared beliefs about the goals of child development
Motivational theory by Abraham Maslow in 1943 is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs and that convinced lower factors needs can be satisfied. Collaborative Learning by Johnson& Johnson, 1993, p.9) says that this use instructional use of small groups so that students work together to make the most of their own and each other’s learning. A major factor that influences pupil academic performance is the idea that they can achieve. Eggen, Jacobsen, Kauchak (2006) note that teachers assist the internalization process and they do effectively learning activities that encourage a positive, academic and cognitive self-concept. Maria Montessori (1965) says that children learn best when the environment supports their natural longing to acquire skills and knowledge.
Understanding the rationales of cognitive perspective helps an individual to interact with children in a better way. It is very important for a child to develop a proper cognitive ability from a young age. By understanding the rationales of cognitive development, one is able to know what to expose the children to as they develop. Also, one knows how to advise the parents of the children on the various methods of handling their children. Once one acquires this skills they are able to distinguish the different types of children and know exactly how to handle each of them.
Student Name: Yan Wang Theory Critique between Cognitive Theory and Socio-cultural Theory For this assignment, I have selected two theories, cognitive theory and socio-cultural theory, to compare and contrast for further understanding children development and both theories’ implication in current education. Cognitive theory studies how people think, what’s going on within people’s mind. Social-cultural theory studies how the society, the culture, other people or external environment impact individual development. This paper would firstly respectively demonstrate both theories’ basic philosophy, representative persons and their claims. In the part
For those children who enter their early elementary grades at-risk for academic and social problems, this flexibility allows them the opportunity to engage in more secure attachments with their teachers, which in turn allows these children to have their needs met. Developing a secure attachment with an adult other than their primary caregiver such as their teacher can allow for intimate relationships whereby the child / student may learn to regulate emotion, develop strategies for his behavior, develop self-esteem, explore his environment with confidence, establish effective peer relationships, and perform with better skills on measures of language development, emergent literacy and reading, cognitive development and play, and social interaction with peers and adults (Pianta, 2006). In the current literature, significant investigative attention has been paid to children’s attachment styles with their teachers. For example, as stated above, O’Farrell, Morrison, and Furlong (2006) refers to the differing Attachment styles as Types A, B, and C. Other researches focusing predominantly on the teacher student relationship, have identified similar styles. Using attachment theory, DiPerna, Volpe, & Elliot (2002) refer to the differing styles as secure, avoidant, and
The framework states that every individual child will be observed on a certain topic. For example, a child being observed for their speech and language, behaviour or physical. Observations outline the weaker skills that each child contains and it will give the practitioners an idea of what the child needs to develop on for them to improve on their skills. Through observations, it outlines the full potential each child has so that the practitioner has an understanding to not have high expectations from each child as they may not be at that stage of development. The practitioners will find is easier to plan activities once they have an idea of each child 's potential as activities will then be planned to improve their weaker skills.
• What are the strengths of this assessment tool? This assessment allows for a more individualized approach to planning for specific children, while providing support to all. Using observation and anecdotal assessments provides multiple opportunities to view children learning and provides a more realistic view of their learning than an assessment, which only allows for right or wrong answers. • What are the weaknesses of this assessment tool? It is critical that observations be free of bias and objective, a skill that needs to be developed and can be a challenge for some teachers.
What is the guidance philosophy in this classroom? Give three examples to support your decision about the guidance policy. I think the positive guidance techniques followed by the teacher had a great influence in keeping the children happy. The teacher focused on helping children learn what they should do, rather than emphasizing what they did wrong. Children who were running were instructed to walk slowly instead of being told not to run.
To be developmentally appropriate, teaching practices must be successful, especially in producing a favorable impression on children—they must promote to children’s ongoing development and learning. Children who are interested and engaged in the classroom activities and lessons learn more. By stimulating active interest and engagement, I guarantee that children will get the most out of the instructional opportunities demonstrated in the classroom. I present information using a variety of learning formats, including large and small groups, choice time (in interest areas), and routines. Routines such as eating snacks and transitioning from one activity to another are all possibly valuable learning situations if teachers use these activities as chances for one-on-one conversations with children or to support a learning objective through singing a song or reciting a rhyme.