The attention of students can be increased by using models that are viewed as competent, prestigious and similar to themselves. Through purposeful use of rewards and punishments, the motivational aspects of observational learning may be supported. These consequences, further, should shape the behavior of students when they are provided either to the learner or to a model. What basic assumptions/principles of this theory are relevant to instructional design? Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly.
The term learning is defined by the Oxford dictionary as the process of acquiring knowledge from reading and studying. This is a very formal view on how we humans learn on a daily basis. However, Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning Model proposes that learning may occur just by mere observation of one’s surrounding. This process of learning may be also referred to as informal learning. This way of learning has been in practice since the beginning of our civilisation as a method to pass on the wisdom of the elders to the younger generations in order to perform day to day tasks.
The component processes underlying this observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. This means all behavioral, cognitive and environmental factors can affect the learning
His work mainly revolves around social learning theory. He also acknowledges with behaviourist learning theories of "classical conditioning" and "operant conditioning." He further accumulates 2 concepts: 1) "Mediating process happens between stimuli and responses." 2) " Behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning." The behaviour we observed is models.
The children who viewed the male or female adult behaving aggressively to a Bobo Doll were then left alone with the doll and observed to see what type of behaviour they would display and what was shown was that the children that had witnessed the aggression to the Bobo Doll imitated the adult’s aggression. Bandura concluded that learning can take place through observation called vicarious learning however he believed that observational learning cannot be the whole answer as people also have individual differences for example personality and genes. Overall, the study is plausible as it is a well-supported account of development and it can be applied to a wide range of behaviours as children observe every type of behaviour but they only imitate the behaviours that they think that they will benefit from. The Bobo Doll study takes into account cognition as
Many parents and teachers use operant social learning to encourage good behavior in children. We learn socially acceptable or desirable behavior through being rewarded and getting punished for bad behavior (Grieve, et al. 2005). Another way that social learning occurs is through observation, which is, imitating or watching the behaviors of other and observing the consequences of it. There are four components of observational learning which are attention, retention or memory, initiation or reproduction and motivation (Grieve, et al.
There are many theories concerning the matter of learning; this essay will discuss two very popular theories, Observational learning and associative learning. The observational learning and associative learning theories are the result of genius; they shed a light on the previously shadowed subject of learning. The observational learning theory is the product of the acclaimed psychologist Albert Bandura (Gold Medal Award)(Psychology by Rice University 2014). His theory was that people learn through observation (Psychology by Rice University 2014). He believed that people learn through mimicking (Psychology by Rice University 2014).
The social learning theory posits that people learn by observing others performing a task and model the behavior. This learning theory is relevant to my teaching initiative because students will observe the procedure of catheter insertion, and removal and will be expected to perform the process. Thus, the social cognitive theory states that new experiences are learner by observation and emulation. According to Hill, Son and West (2009) analyzed the social learning theory and how it can be used for online learning. The study explores Web-Based Learning Environment in which learners interact with each other online.
Introduction to the problem For this discussion, the information processing theory and Jerome Bruner’s theory of discovery learning are to be applied regarding the curriculum and instruction of an English as a Second Language (ESL) course at a community college. To insure clarity, certain assumptions will have to be made. This writer must imagine that the students enrolled in the class are non-traditional and according to the National Center for Education Statistics (2002), each student must meet at least one of the following criteria: “[he or she did] not enter postsecondary education in the same calendar year that he or she finished high school; attends [college] part time for at least part of the academic year; works full time…while enrolled;