Corals rely on these good bacteria’s crucially although we don’t yet understand these microbe’s ell enough to know how they influence coral survival, which is vital in maintaining the food web of the Great Barrier Reef. These good bacteria as well as other decomposers break down dead organics material and turn nutrients to the sediment. This energy is then obtained by the producers and the cycle begins
Oceans are threatened daily by both natural and manmade pollution, as the largest factor affecting them is plastic. Over the last decade, there has been more plastic produced compared to the last 100 years (“How Ocean Pollution Impacts Marine Life-and All of Us”). Around 100 millions tons of plastic is produced every year and 10 percent of that plastic ends up in the sea. Many sources are the cause of ocean litter including trash that washes off city streets, waste blown in from landfills, and containers that fall off ships during heavy storms. Many marine mammals mistake these for food (Greer, Abigail).
Certain species have a huge impact to an ecosystem, but even the smallest fish could have the biggest impact. Overfishing occurs when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction (overfishing). The results not only affect the balance of life in the oceans, but could also affect the coastal areas that depend on fish for their way of life. For centuries, our seas and oceans seem to be considered a limitless food supply. But that is not the case, increasing fishing efforts over the last fifty years as well as unjustifiable fishing practices are pushing many fish stocks to the point of extinction.
Corals under stress due to changes in PH levels or temperature of the water will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living within their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching. Another cause of coral bleaching is produced formation water, an effluent of offshore oil and gas industries that cause significant bleaching ( White et al .2012) .When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are subject to mortality.
Dispersants cause the oil to break up into smaller droplets, which become miscible in water. However, these dispersants may result in more ecological harm than good. The chemicals contain nonbiodegradable toxins that can kill fish and migrate great distances. Dispersants also are blamed for the massive oil plumes several hundreds of feet underwater, harmful to all aquatic life, especially fish larvae and filter feeders. Moreover, because of the large volume of oil that has been spilled, the amount of dispersant required and the amount of oil dispersed simply suppresses the problem, rather than solving
Keeping the Ocean Free of Debris Pollution in the Persian gulf is negatively impacting marine life How much are we trashing our ocean? CNN, February 12th 2015. Arabian Gulf coral reefs dying a slow death. Gulf news, June 10th, 2014. Spill, Dolphin Deaths Spark Alarm At Persian Gulf Pollution.
Although we have explored less than five percent of our vast oceans, humans have set them on a path to devastation long before we could discover the rest. Mark Prigg for dailymail.com warns by the end of the century, the oceans will have been damaged to an irreversible point. Without the oceans, the global climate cannot be regulated, where the world’s environmental state would then be far worse than what we have seen to be possible by, for example, global warming. It begins with our oceans becoming filled with various forms of waste by humans, atmospheric changes causing acidity in water increase, and imbalances of organism life leading to lower levels of oxygen. How the oceans may die is crucial to understand in order for them to be preserved for the survival of the planet.
Ocean acidification may not be noticeable to you when you dive in the water but to marine organisms it is having a huge affect. So lets clarify what ocean acidification is. • Ocean acidification is caused through the transfer of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean. • Research shows that over the past 250 years the amount of carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere has increased approximately 40%. ocean has absorbed one third of this carbon dioxide which has been caused due to human usages of fossil fuels and deforestation.
These starfish are not commonly found in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef, but some of them reach the area due to ocean currents, tropical storms or human activity. However, when the population of this specific kind of starfish increases at the Great Barrier Reef the reef “might be completely destroyed in two to three years”1. An invasion by these starfish causes devastation to the reef, as happened in 1970. Many parts of the Great Barrier Reef have been destroyed, and although the population of crown-of-thorns starfish near the reef is now negligible the reef still needs a long time to recover from this plague.2
Coral Bleaching is caused when elevated seawater temperatures result in extensive coral loss. When the water becomes too warm coral will expel the algae living in their tissue, causing the coral to turn completely white. Pollution from urban or agricultural run-offs, sedimentation from undersea activity like dredging, and changes in the salinity are other contributors to coral bleaching. Although coral can survive the bleaching they are under more stress and are subject to mortality. This issue is not a new problem; coral bleaching has had a substantial effect on coral for many years.