Coastal current generally flow parallel to the coastline (Mohd-Nasir and Meged, 1996). The current flows to southward during the northeast and to northward during the southwest monsoons respectively (Mohd-Nasir and Camerlengo, 1997). Generally, during the Southwest Monsoon (Figure 2.8a), water moves in a clockwise circulation over the sea. On the east coast of Pahang, water moves towards the north and then deflect to the right on the northern part of the
The seiche shows up as a contortion in the tidal bend which can, under certain conditions, deliver a twofold high water. The arrangement of the seiche is investigated with a numerical reproduction of an ocean strait, constrained by the tide at its open closures. A seiche, of wavelength equivalent to double the length of the strait, is shaped when the mean profundity of the strait is the tidal extent: the quick decrease of contact as high water is drawn nearer has all the earmarks of being an imperative part of the arrangement procedure. Perceptions of water level in the focal point of a shallow ocean strait in north Wales affirm that there is a remaining wavering around high water with the type of a damped seiche. The peak of the seiche happens just some time recently, and the trough soon after, the most extreme in the fitted tidal bend.
The middle layer is known to be the transitional layer because it is where the density of water changes with depth and finally, the bottom layer is very cold, salty and the densest water in the ocean. The variables that can affect sea water’s density are the salinity (amount of dissolved salt) and temperature. As the salinity increases, the density of water also increases whereas when the temperature increases, the density of water decreases. Therefore, the buoyancy of an object on the water would depend on the water’s density and temperature including pressure. Materials 500mL Beakers (3 1L Measuring cylinder with end cap (1) Funnel with a tube Vials (4) with stoppers Lace pins Ice Salt Tap water Hot water Dye ( blue, green and red) Method Three beakers were labelled and filled according to the following: Beaker 1 - Ice Cold Water: The beaker was half-filled with tap water and ice was added to chill it.
Figure 5.4 illustrates a fluctuation of mean size values of Tanjung Lumpur, leads to a comparatively active beach condition, as the area is located near the river-mouth of Sungai Kuantan. The mean size values ranged between -0.83φ and 2.38φ. Coarser sediment type was obtained during southwest monsoon period (June 2012 – August 2012). Station 4 (PER) – Fine and medium sands were found as the major portion of total sediment at this station. The fine sand content ranged from 2.03φ to 2.78φ while the medium sand ranged from 1.07φ to 1.98φ (Table 5.2).
Irelands coastline is predominantly cliffed, and is affected by meso to macrotidal coastal regime. Due to this and other biogeophysical features, mean that Ireland’s coastal environments are capable of absorbing much of the expected SLR (sea-level rise) occurring in the future. However, the position of Ireland, centre of north-west of Europe’s coastal margin, gives it a larger significance for both Europe and international coastal studies than for vulnerability alone. Studies into Ireland’s coastline can be split into three groups: (1) impacts on coastal margin due to storms, (2) the value of Ireland for coastal baseline studies because of occurrence of relatively pristine coastal environments, and (3) response and cultural views of humans to environmental management and associated legalisation (Devoy; 2008). Previous work published by Houghton et al., 1996; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Staff, 2001; Parry et al., 2007; shows that there is a deficiency in the establishment of local to national scale studies of coastal management and functioning (Devoy; 2008).
Saline water solution (composed from pure water and seawater) is used as electrolyte with concentrations of 25%, 37.5%, 50%, 70%, 85% and 100% of seawater. Figure 3 shows the hydrogen production rate changes with saline water concentrations at different input voltages. It illustrates that the increase in the concentration of saline water, the higher the hydrogen gas flow
Carbon dioxide is transferred between the ocean and the atmosphere usually it travels from the atmosphere to the ocean and finally there reached an equilibrium stage CARBON STOREHOUSE The oceans presently absorb a large amount of human-created CO2, roughly 22 million tons per day. Increase in the number shows that at the end of the century, continued discharge could lessen ocean’s pH by additional 0.5 units. Shell-forming organisms including corals, shrimps, lobster, oysters, many planktonic species, and even many fish species are affected badly. The issue is; as the oceans continuously absorb more carbon dioxide, their capacity as a
There is high wave frequency and weak swash, which brings ashore a minute amount of material. Destructive waves tend to be tall waves, meaning they break with great force upon the beach leading to a strong backwash that removes beach material. Ultimately, destructive waves create steep narrow beaches. Constructive waves on the other hand have long periods between their wave crests and low energy. Their swash is much stronger than their backwash, building up the beach with deposited sediments.
The resurrection of oceanic dispersal in historical biodiversity. by Alan de Queiroz. The distribution of many taxa that are separated by oceans can be explained by either vicariance or oceanic dispersal. At first oceanic dispersal was the explanation used for the distribution of taxa separated by oceans. Since the 1930s till the 1960s time oceanic dispersal was the most common explanation because there were many plausible dispersal mechanisms that would make oceanic dispersal possible.
Coastal management refers to all the management practises, scientific and traditional, which help to maintain the balance between environmental processes, human health, human and economic activities of coastal areas (National Ocean Service, 2014). Coastal areas are dynamic environments which are continuously acted upon by wind, rain, waves and wave action from changing tides and currents. These strong forces have shaped the world’s coastlines predominantly through erosion and deposition (Chiras & Reganold, 2010). Our coastlines may be made up of dunes and beaches, rocky cliffs, barrier islands or coral reefs. They also usually support coastal wetlands, salt marshlands and thick mangrove forests which act as buffers between our fragile coasts