One of the important uses of PCR is the diagnosis of possible AIDS infection at a very early stage even before antibodies have developed . This is especially important due to the long delay in viruses. Thanks to PCR, a DNA fragment of an HIV-infected isolated human leukocyte can be reproduced until a sufficient amount of material has been obtained for analysis. PCR can also be used to preimplant- diagnose, for example, to detect cystic fibrosis . For the assay are isolated from the in vitro generated from the eight-cell embryo at the one cell.
The CDC targets neglected parasitic infections, a group of only 5 parasitic diseases, for public health action. The Chagas disease is also referred to as American Trypanosomiasis. 4 1 Cause Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypansoma cruzi. Triatomine bugs, a type of reduviid bug or “Kissing Bug”, carry the parasite. Most commonly, a person is infected at night when the triatomine bug takes a blood meal near the lips.
Viruses are therefore employed as a medium to deliver the required gene with high efficiency into the target cells. Viral vectors are engineered using sophisticated methods such that the unwanted genes responsible for replication, assembling, or infection are replaced by the therapeutic gene. Current Viral vectors can further be categorized into, Non-lytic viruses, retroviruses and lentiviruses, produce virions from the cellular membrane of an infected cell, leaving the host cell relatively intact and Lytic viruses, human adenovirus and herpes simplex virus families, destroy the infected cell after replication and virion
1) Explain: a) What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Herpes Simplex Virus? Type 1 Herpes Simplex virus infects oral mucous membrane. It may causes fever blisters, most adults have antibodies to virus. Most individuals are infected in childhood.
Wound healing Wound healing is an orchestrated biological process, which is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves cells, mediators, growth factors and cytokines (Yates et al., 2007). Wound healing is initiated by tissue injury and culminating in restoration of tissue integrity. There are five consecutive cascades of events in wound healing process. They are hemostasis, inflammation, migration, proliferation and maturation. The first stage includes hemostasis and inflammation, which occurs soon after the damage of skin.
The virus enters the cell, making it home. When inside its cytoplasm, the virus uncoats itself after which it then proceeds to release genetic material within it, along with nuclear proteins and enzymes. These materials along with the single stranded RNA it releases will now be used as a stencil for the new viral genomes. A genome of an organism is its entire DNA structure inclusive of all of its genes which contain the necessary information needed for the construction, development and maintenance of the organism. All of these help in its effective replication.
Salmonella Typhi Introduction The typhoid bacillus or simply typhoid is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria, it usually and mostly infect only humans. Entric fever and paralyphoid are from other species of salmonella, this infect all domestic animals and also human. The typhoid fever is an acute and a dangerous disease that is caused by bacterium salmonella entrica serovar Typhi. The bacteria enters the body of human trough the ingestion of contaminated substance ( i.e water, food e.t.c) from the mouth which then affect the intestine wall and multiplies in the lymphoid tissue and thereafter infect the blood stream and lead to bacteremia.
The bacteria were heat-killed, and these respective components were extracted and the composition resulted in being similar to that of DNA. They also treated the bacteria with multiple enzymes, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, ribonuclease and deoxyribonucleodepolymerase, where it was found that only the deoxyribonucleodepolymerase inhibited the formation of smooth Pneumococcus colonies. [Downie. A. W. (1972)] Thus, they confirmed that DNA was the transformation principle in Griffith's experiments. The Avery and MacLeod experiment was replicated in the laboratories at the University of the Witwatersrand.
These diseases can range from a common flu to a serious disease causing death. The Biological weapons also affect other living organisms. Types of Biological weapons There are 3 types of Biological agents that can be weaponized, these 5 agents differ in strength and effect. • Bacterial agents: single cell organisms that cause diseases such as tularemia, plague and anthrax –which is considered the deadliest bacterial agents as it can cause death in 24-36 hours and it easily
aricella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alpha- herpesvirus, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella results from primary VZV infec- tion; it is a common childhood illness associated with fever and a generalized pruritic vesicular rash. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia after primary infection. Herpes zoster is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent der- matomes and caused by VZV reactivation. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression.
2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
Viruses are not something to laugh about. They kill thousands of people every year and infect millions. While death is unlikely for many viruses, Influenza, Hantavirus, and the Marburg Virus are killing machines. They all have different symptoms that can spread the disease further and quicker. All of these diseases are very contagious.