and his adopted heir Octavian (63B.C – 14 A.D.) are out for revenge against the two main men who plotted and killed Caesar on the Idles of March in 44B.C. The hunt was on for those two men who elected to shake the foundations of the republic with the hopes of renewing what it was before Caesar crossed the Rubicon. Those two men were Marcus Junius Brutus (85B.C. – 42B.C.) and Gaius Cassius Longinus (85B.C.
Benito Mussolini was born in 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, Italy. Mussolini was kicked out of the party because he supported the fighting involved in World War I. In 1919, he created the Italian Fascist Party. And in 1922 he declared himself dictator, which meant he held all the power in Italy. But, during World War II and his own people killed him, on April 28, 1945, in Mezzegra, Italy.
Carthage gave up their fleet and lost all their territory, blocking any prospect of revival . The war also put strain upon the Roman forces: there were high casualty rates and many men had to be drafted. Criminals and slaves were made soldiers to fill the ranks- Italy was close to devastation. Despite numerous setbacks, the Roman forces emerged dominant in western and, ultimately, centeal Mediterranean (Boatwright 2004: 119). A GROWING MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE After their second success, Rome’s power spread throughout the rest of the Mediterranean world.
Qin gathered all its forces, led by Zhang Han, who attacked the Chu army, and killed Xiang Liang at the battle of Dingtao. The governor of Pei and Xiang Yu withdrew from Waihuang and attacked Chenliu, but Chenliu was stoutly defended and they could not conquer it. The discussed what their best plan would be and decided that, since Xiang Liang’s army had been defeated and their soldiers were filled with terror, they had better join the army of Lü Chen and withdraw to the east. Zhang Han, the Qin commander, have defeated Xiang Liang’s army, considered that the forces of Chu are were no longer worth worrying about. Therefore he crossed the Yellow River and attacked Zhao, inflicting a severe defeat.
A People’s History of Ancient Rome and political scientist, Michael Parenti, stated that Caesar’s assassination “marked a turning point in the history of Rome. It set in motion a civil war and put an end to whatever democracy there had been” (Parenti 2). Caesar’s assassination harmed Rome and did not help their political situation at all. It confused and infuriated the working class because they had lost their beloved king to greedy senators without a real explanation. In Meller and McGee’s book they state that instead of supporting the conspiracy, the “assassination did help Caesar’s reputation” (Meller and McGee 78).
The vulnerability of this transforming empire allowed it to be attacked by Germanic tribes and other warring nations. One of the Germanic tribes, the Franks, led by the Frankish warrior Clovis, would establish a kingdom in modern-day France by 496 A.D. Unfortunately, the successive kings of the Frankish people would be very weak rulers and were known as the do-nothing kings. This succession of kings offered the people under them no protection from roaming warriors. Therefore, due to a lack of security, the king gave away large tracts of land to other aristocrats (maior domus) if they would pledge their loyalty to the king.
Caesar might have died but shortly after his death he became the scapegoat in the new Roman Empire. A clan of lower and bourgeois Romans huddled at Caesar’s funeral with the furious crowd ambushing and besieging the homes of Cassius and Brutus, the culprits who murdered Julius. Fun fact: Although most people assume that the Caesar Salad is named after Julius Caesar, it isn’t. The Caesar Salad legend is from the creation of the recipe to an Italian immigrant also known as Caesar Cardini.
After a long period of its existence, the huge Roman Empire eventually reached its end as “the North African bishop Saint Augustine (354-430) wrote the City of God in response – all empires fall, Rome is no different.”(Class 7 slide) The fall of such a huge empire then raises an important question that what were the main reasons for collapsing of the Roman Empire. Many historians argued that barbarians led to the decline and eventually fall of the Roman Empire. The Romans used the term “barbarians” for all foreigners especially, for the tribes who attacked and intruded their borders. But in fact the word “barbarian” did not have a negative meaning for all people in the Roman Empire. Around A.D. 440, as the Christian priest Salvian indicated,
Thus, General Napoleon, now Emperor, took control of the military and defeated Austria on his first Italian campaign. The treaty of Campo Formio was signed, resulting in a territorial gain for Napoleonic France. After The Little Corsican ended the Reign of Terror’s government based around terror itself, legal and political reforms were made to reshape and rebuild France into a new, functional empire. Napoleon overthrew the Directory with his famous Coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire, ending the previous government that revolved around terror. A Consulate was established to act as the government for the new empire.
Carthage was ruined when the wars ended. In the first war, Rome wanted to break Carthage’s control of the islands that enabled it to control all of Western Mediterranean. The second Punic was basically to decide the fate of Rome. It was mostly about the rivalry between Rome and Carthage. The last war was all about Carthage’s attempt to gain liberty.