Babies are born with an innate ability to learn and their brain to develop after birth. The neural pathways of a human’s brain are built based on their early experience in the world. A baby’s world is based on how they are treated by people in it therefore if the environment is scary then the baby will be reluctant to explore, as demonstrated n Bowlby’s and Ainsworth’s attachment theory. The brain and body become wired enough to understand what is safe and what should be feared. The birth to 3 years of a child’s life is a critical period for the brain during child development and any deprivation during this will result in persistent deficits in cognitive, emotional and even physical health.
To develop trust, they need to have warm, consistent, predictable, and attentive care. They require parental figures who will accurately read and react to their signals. When infants are distressed, they need to be comforted. They also need loving physical contact, nourishment, cleanliness, and warmth. Then they will develop a sense of confidence and trust that the world is safe and dependable.
The attachment theory specifies that an infants and young child requires consistent relationships with people to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a essential need with a biological basis where infants or young children need to maintain a sense of security with a specific person. Developing a secure attachment between the infant and their parents or guardian is an important part of early childhood development, due to the many things that can interfere with the development of a healthy attachment. Without a secure attachment, an infant may develop problems that can continue throughout their lives and affect the relationships with others. Approach behavior may be defined as locomotion in which a usual outcome of the distance between one person and one other specific person is observed to distinguish the distance between each individual and the attachment to one another.
Throughout early childhood is when children have many opportunities to learn and explore, as well as being vulnerable and frightened. This is when they start the beginning of their lives and explore many possibilities. Having developed healthy social and emotional competence may have many effects on them as a child but not only that, also their wellbeing and future life. It can create success from an early age and traits such as confidence and self-belief can be cemented and followed through for the rest of their life. Socially and emotionally competent children can expect to grow and develop throughout life facing both long and short-term effects.
Theories (Erikson & Attachment) According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, trust vs. mistrust, occurs in the first year of life. Erikson believed that the caregiver’s response to the infant’s cries help them develop a sense of trust, when the caregiver responds right away to the infant’s distress of crying or fussing (Mooney, 2000). Erikson believed that in the earliest years of life, mainly during infancy, patterns of trust or mistrust are formed that control, or at least influence, a person’s actions or interactions for the rest of life (Erikson, 1950). Bowlby hypothesized that children are born with a predisposition to be attached to caregivers and that children will organize their behavior and thinking in order to maintain those relationships (Bettmann, 2006).
Failure to develop trust will result in fear and belief that the world is unpredictable and inconsistent. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (toddlerhood): Following infants’ understanding of a predictable environment, toddlers are starting to realize if they can depend on others. At this stage, toddlers are a step towards developing as an individual, in other
The caregiver is readily available and responsive to the infant’s needs and emotions. When an infant develop trust in the availability and reliability of this relationship. The internal working models for the infants is likely to be one their anxiety is reduced and they can therefore explore and enjoy their world, safe in the knowledge that they can return to their secure base for help if needed and can emotionally regulate oneself. The child grows up to be confident, less disruptive and aggressive than the other groups, able to form long lasting relationships and have
The life course perspective is a theoretical model that has been emerging over the last four decades. Sociologists, anthropologists, social historians, psychologists and demographers all have contributed to give it shape (Hutchison: no date). A life course can be considered as the way and journey of a person from birth to death. It is formed and impacted by the activities, occasions, events and encounters in an individuals’ life (Crawford and Walker: 2007). Exploring the life and experiences that have influenced it is an important stage in learning the significance of life course development and its impact on social work practice. Human development from life course perspective is defined as “a view point that considers the whole of a life (from
Secured attachment is extremely important in the developmental stages of an infant. Secure attachment is when an infant feels distressed when they are separated from their caregivers and feels happy when their caregiver returns. Research from this article suggests that, when an infant does not receive the comfort they need from their caregiver for secure attachments, it can have a negative impact on their behaviour later on in their childhood and throughout life. Infants who have secured attachments tend to develop stronger self-esteem as they grow older, they also tend to be more independent and successful in socialising. Those children are also less likely to experience less depression and anxiety.
Erikson's stages of life include eight main stages. The first stage is infancy and it starts at 0 to 1 year of age and the basic conflict is called trust vs mistrust. In this stage, infants begin to start developing trust when their caregivers provide care, reliability, and affection. Lack of this will lead to mistrust. The second stage is early childhood and it starts at 2 to 3 years of age and the basic conflict is called autonomy vs shame and doubt. In this stage, children build up personal control over their physical skills and mostly their independence. Success over this will cause feelings of autonomy and failure leads to shame and doubt. The third stage is preschool and it starts at 3 to 5 years of age and the basic conflict is initiative vs guilt. In this stage, children assert
Anisworth developed a technique called the “strange situation” (Levy & Blatt 1999). Through this, Ainsworth was able to categorize infants with considerable reliability into three distinct groups (Secure, avoidant and anxious-ambivalent) based on their reunion behaviour with their mothers after their brief separation. She explains that the avoidant is characterized by a quiet distance in the mother’s presence, acting unaware of the mother’s departure, and avoiding the mother upon reunion (Levy & Blatt
Lord Ganesha The Applications of Erikson’s Stages of Psychological Development Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth – 1 year) When I was born in this auspicious earth the first face I saw was my parents face. I used to cry a lot and mom usually thinks I’m hungry and feeds me every time when I do so. So I got to know my mom a lot
The life span of an individual goes through developmental stages in life, from conception to death. The majority of the stages we pass are biological, socio-economical and psychological birth rights.
According to the Erikson’s psychosocial theory, which consists of 8 stages of development, infancy (trust vs. mistrust) is the most important stage. During this stage the infant learns to trust its caregivers and the environment around him. Forced to adapt in an environment in the absence of his father, Lamar was raised in a
Having the right knowledge, skills and experience in understanding how children or young people develop are very important tools for early years practitioners. We must put to mind that each child born to this world is unique; they are born with different characters and their personalities and behaviours are formed and influenced by variety of factors. These factors may affect their ways of interacting to the environment and community or setting in which they live in. In my experience as a child care practitioner most of the time, adults mainly focus on the physical development of a child and so quick to base their conclusion or judgement on the physical aspect.