In the first stage in the normal body, vitamin B12 binding proteins that found in saliva to enters the stomach. Then the stomach uses hydrochloric acid to liberate vitamin B12 from the proteins. However, in the first stage of pernicious anemia, the stomach excretes a small amount of hydrochloric acid. This leads to a failure of separate vitamin B12 from food proteins, which inhibit vitamin B12 from absorption. In addition, the lack of secretion of hydrochloric acid provides a suitable environment for a reproduction of gut bacteria.
For Mr. Tripson’s urine test, the physician wants to examine his dissolved particle-to-water levels, or osmolarity. Polyuria is a condition in which you lose a lot of water in your urine; the osmolarity test will determine how much water and what concentration of particles are in it. The two particles the physician is specifically interested in observing are glucose and ketones, both of which are indicators of diabetes mellitus. A presence of ketones in your urine could mean your body is burning fat instead of glucose for energy, which is common in diabetic patients, and could potentially lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes that can be fatal. In this case, the urine result
These are particularly noteworthy in Mountain Dew, which, in two of the five trials, resulted in a mass gain of the teeth. This is also present in Trial 2 of the Pepsi. It was first assumed that the mass gain was due to the mass of the soft drink still on the marble chips, but after measuring them again the next day after allowing them to dry out, this theory was not supported. It is more likely that the initial mass of the marble chips were incorrectly noted, which resulted in incorrect data. Furthermore, both Coke and Fanta had a drastic difference in their highest and lowest percentage mass loss, with Coke’s greatest difference at 9.23% and Fanta’s at 8.18%.
It is also important to note that Dr. Maxwell reported eating a low salt diet. Knowing that Dr. Maxwell came into the hospital consuming little salt, and that he is outputting a small amount of the fluid he is taking in, it makes sense to see his sodium levels to be on the lower side. Also, Dr. Maxwell has ascites and edema meaning that he is retaining fluids. As expected there are nutritional implications from this. For example, the transition from homeostasis to imbalance of “osmolality.”
The Glycemic index uses a scale of 0 to 100 with the higher values of the food being the one that causes the rapid rise in the blood glucose level. These figures are done by several tests by taking samples of one’s blood after one has eaten. The label on foods that read “Low GI” shows one that the food will take longer to absorb into the body as well as to break down into the blood stream making one feel fuller for longer. Although eating
Oxidative Phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which mitochondria use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to create ATP. If cells become oxygen deficient, the condition known as hypoxia (no oxygen) occurs. This condition can be due to abnormally acidic blood or a lack of critical enzymes necessary for releasing oxygen from red blood cells, so when this oxidative cycle is oxygen deficient, it can’t produce the quantity nor quality of ATP necessary for normal cellular functioning. “Oxygen is alkaline forming in the blood, while carbon dioxide which is produced as a by-product of the oxidation process is acid forming. The ratio between them is intimately connected with maintaining optimal blood pH of 7.46, which is the primary goal of the nutritional protocols of metabolic profiling.
However this is inaccurate as Chris Kesser highlighted that the body in fact makes its own vitamin K2 from vitamin K1, which is found in eggs, milk and fermented plant foods. Therefore concluding that a vegetarian or a vegan can attain a sufficient amount of vitamin K2 only if one is to simply eat the right foods which contain vitamin k1. There are common deficiencies and disorders that are associated with vegetarian and vegan diets, including bone density deficiencies and anaemia which are the most commonly associated deficiencies and disorders. Bone density is often a concern when it comes to vegan and vegetarian diets. Bone density or bone mineral density (BMD) is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue (as defined by Wikipedia).
The results of the phenol-sulfuric acid analysis conducted in this experiment suggest that the data acquired was relatively precise but inaccurate with respect to the given carbohydrate concentrations of the soda and Gatorade samples. Using a standard curve generated from a glucose solution with a known concentration, the carbohydrate concentration of the samples was determined (in terms of glucose) and a low coefficient of variation was calculated. However, a high percent relative error was apparent in the analysis of both samples. This may have been due to the fact that the analysis was conducted assuming glucose was the carbohydrate of interest, while, in fact, a significant portion of the monosaccharides would have existed as fructose (a
The original reason for producing sports drinks, after all, was to replenish electrolytes lost through sweat while working out. The Mayo Clinic states "Water is generally the best way to replace lost fluids. But if you're exercising for more than sixty minutes, use a sports drink.” Men’s Fitness’ Amy Levin-Epstein says sports drinks are the way to go for workouts that exceed an hour or shorter workouts at high intensities, and yet, this general public opinion on sports drinks is incorrect. Of the losses excreted through sweat, water is far more vital and necessary to replace than electrolytes. Unless one exercises for a period of time exceeding four hours, electrolyte losses won’t be high enough to affect health or performance and can instead be simply replaced through everyday meals (Smolin).
Phenylketonuria is carried on a recessive allele. As a result, both parents must pass down the same recessive allele for the disease in order for the baby to carry it. However, both parents do not need to have the disease to pass it on. PKU is a recessive allele that in most parents is overpowered by the dominant allele preventing PKU. Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder in which a person’s body does not contain the enzyme that is necessary to break down an important amino acid found in protein called phenylalanine.
Caffeine for athletes is a good idea when all the right elements are present. The body needs carbs and protein to be able to function well with caffeine. It was soon taken off the banned list because when it comes to overdosing on caffeine, it has little effect. Only so much caffeine can effect a person 's body in relation to physical fulfillment. Taking more does not give someone extended energy, so it does not result in a larger benefit.
It can also happen to due kidney diseases. They are three kinds of Metabolic alkalosis, 1) Hypocloermic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, from prolonged vomiting. 2) Hypokelemic alkalosis, which is caused by the kidneys response to an extreme loss or lack of potassium. This can happen from taking diuretics. 3) Compensated alkalosis, which occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance but the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels, remain abnormal.