I am having dubious feelings for the success of the geomapping of offender residences idea. The GIS applications enable the crime agencies and the society and as a result, they would be having more knowledge on criminals and statistics and visual depiction serve as a good benchmark for mapping crime and criminal preferred location. Due to which, in my judgment, sex offenders will look for isolated places due to the presence of the geomapping implementation. But, this in turn, would also be beneficial for the criminals to carry out crime activities within least mapped areas. Also, technology and managerial efforts’ failures are conceivable and it can be crucial in certain circumstances.
When a judge is considering sentencing to convict an offender specific deterrence should be more valuable than general deterrence but both are needed in the sentencing process. For the offender not to reoffend specific deterrence need to be embedded to determine the certainty of the crime. So the offender will not commit the same crime twice. Overall doing the sentencing process the judge have the right to use this offender specific deterrence to promote general deterrence to the public. This will allow other to fear the consequences and possibly punishment if they commit this specific crime.
Furthermore, there can be several factors at play when a wrongful conviction occurs and each case is unique. Three of the more common and detrimental factors that will be explored in this essay are eyewitness error, the use of jailhouse informants and professional and institutional misconduct. Firstly, eyewitness testimony can be a major contributor to a conviction and is an important factor in wrongful conviction (Campbell & Denov, 2016, p. 227). Witness recall and, frankly, the human emory are not as reliable as previously thought. In fact there has been much research showing the problems with eyewitness testimony such as suggestive police interviewing, unconscious transference, and malleability of confidence (Campbell & Denov, 2016, p.227).
Unlike facts proved by science, crime is a socially constructed idea and its definition is unclear. The images of thieves or other criminals are not existing in the beginning but are developed as time passes. It makes crime like a daily life ’myth’ (Hillyard & Tombs, 2007). Also, the same kind of crime can be done under very different situations with contrasting reasons but often the crime is treated with same type of punishment under the criminal justice system. The standard form of response given by the system causes inefficiency in dealing with several acts which are all labelled with the name “crime” (Hillyard & Tombs, 2007).
Fifth, the specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. Sixth, a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. Seventh, Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. Eighth, the process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. Lastly, while criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.
Besides the characterization of Blackie, the author uses irony to show his belief that people aren 't just good
The Criminal Justice system in Ghana defines a crime as an act against the state rather than an act against the individual and the community at large. It focuses more on punishment and retributive justice instead of restorative justice, which takes into consideration the victims, and healing the harm caused them. Victims often feel vulnerable and defenseless. Some even feel twice victimized, first by the offender and then by an uncaring criminal justice system that does not make adequate provision for them be it physical, psychological or material. They often play a totally inactive role in the criminal justice system; oftentimes they are even deprived of basic assistance or information.
If you commit a crime, you can usually escape penalization if no one testifies against you. Therefore you 've got an interest to keep witnesses from testifying. If criminals habitually achieve deterring testimony, however, the criminal justice system withers, and laws will be broken with freedom from liability. Witness intimidation could be a basic threat to the rule of law. Empirical information on intimidation has been difficult
The basis of criminal defense and prosecution is often formed by eyewitness testimonies. If these testimonies are inaccurate it could lead to a wrongly formed criminal defense and prosecution. According to Loftus, “It is clearly of concern to the law, to police and insurance investigators, and to others to know something about the completeness, accuracy, and malleability of such memories. " It is important to study the memory of an eyewitness because for the defense, prosecution, police, insurance investigators, and people involved in the crime or accident it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information.
A person suffering from a cognitive disability may commit a crime and become easily confused with the criminal justice processes. Court processes involving individuals with intellectual disabilities are not given the same attention as court processes involving individuals with mental illnesses. This raises a very important question. Are cognitive disabilities successfully used as a defense? Cognitive disabilities are different than mental disorders, although certain aspects have some similarities.
1. There is no agreed upon definition of restorative justice. a. Within the criminal justice community, there has been no consensus on exactly how restorative justice should be defined. As a result, there is also some confusion within the community on whether or not restorative justice should be viewed as an outcome or a process (Daly, 2015) b. Because there is no agreement on the definition, there are multiple definitions. This can also result/create theoretical and policy confusion.
Offender Characteristics A study conducted by Canter, Alison, Alison, and Wentink (2014) looking at variables identified in disorganised offenders, showed that in 70 per cent of cases overkill took place, where significantly more violence was used than necessary to subdue the victim. 61 per cent of victims were beaten and 10 per cent had genital mutilation and missing body parts. Based on the disorganised offender theory, the offenders will be white males, aged 15 – 20 years old. Often youthfulness and mental illness are characteristics of a disorganised offence (Douglas, Burgess, & Burgess. 2013).
The act of profiling is defined as the analysis of a person’s psychological and behavioral characteristics to help make generalizations/ assumptions about a person’s intent and or capability. An assumption is defined as something that has been accepted as being true without substantial evidence. These assumptions, then lead to what is known as racial profiling, which refers to a sort of discriminatory way in which an individual is targeted for suspicion in a crime based solely on that individual’s race, ethnicity, religion or national origin. Why make assumptions about a person without having substantial evidence? Why violate and/or humiliate an entire group of people based on an assumption?
Topic Sentence: How has criminal profiling and racial profiling affected the criminal justice system throughout the years? Claim: Criminal profiling and racial profiling have not had a great success rate through the years. At times, innocent people get detained due to matching characteristics of the suspect.
Racial Profiling is when a certain ethnicity is categorized into police and society. This is important because people are prone to judge and label a person for their race. “Since the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, security profiling has targeted people of Arab descent or those who are believed to be Muslims. ”(Racial Profiling). Recently racial profiling has been an issue in the media and local facilities.