This causes the mass to deflect; the deflection is sensed by a suitable means and is converted into an equivalent electrical signal. B. Types of Accelerometer Sensors There are different types of accelerometers. Mechanical ones have something like a mass attached to a spring suspended inside an outer casing. When it is subjected to linear acceleration, the casing moves off immediately leaving behind the mass and spring stretches with a force that corresponds to the acceleration.
The slow injection of large samples may results in loss of resolution and band broadening. The most commonly used method for sample injection is by using a calibrated microsyringe to deliver a sample volume in the range of a few microliters through a rubber septum and then into the vaporization chamber. The temperature of the sample port is usually maintained at about 50°C higher than the boiling point of the least volatile component of the sample. 2. Gas cylinder with pressure
NOTE: Record the grams of gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils that are present in the 50 mL of crude oil. ➢ Select the flask, and choose Heating Mantel option afterward select Max Heat and make sure you record the temperature when you see crude oil begins to boil. ➢ When the crude oil begins to boil, Make sure you turn the temperature down to 60% by decreasing the heating metal two times. Step 3: Record the
The wheel requires some sought of way to detect if the wheel is about to lock up and that’s what speed sensors are for. VALVES There is a valve present in each brake which is controlled by ABS. On some systems, valves have 3 states: • State one, the valve is open, since the valve is open the pressure from main cylinder is passed through to the brake(s). • State two, the valve blocks the line, since the valve is blocking the line it’s basically preventing the pressure to rise more. • State three, when the valve is released from a blocked state to open state in order to release pressure PUMP Pump is a necessary component of the ABS as it used to restore the pressure which was released in the above mentioned third stage of valve.
Engineers came up with idea of using different types of fluids that can change its property according to the external forces. For example MR (Magneto-Rheological) fluids and ER (Electro-Rheological) fluids. MR fluids are materials that expose a change in rheological properties such as elasticity, viscosity or plasticity with the application of a magnetic field. On the other hand, ER fluids alters its rheological property when an electric field is applied to the fluid. MR fluids require small voltages and current, while ER fluids require very large voltage and very small currents.
The casing has openings at regular intervals to allow the working fluid to impound the blades of the runner. Guide vanes direct the water to the turbine wheel, known as a runner. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes, causing the runner to spin. The water enters the turbine through the outer periphery of the runner in a radial direction and leaves the runner in an axial direction, hence “mixed flow turbine”. It is a reaction turbine and only a part of the available head is converted into the velocity head before water enters the runner.