A heating mantle with three heating plates will be used to heat the soxhlet extractor during the experiment. Filter paper will be used to filter the product from the soxhlet extractor if need be. A rotary evaporator will be used for liquid-liquid extraction. GCMS (Gas chromatography mass spectrometry) will be used to analyze the extract. 3.3.
Bottom Chamber liquid: Ethanol has a very low boiling point. When you heat the bottom chamber with your hand, the liquid molecules in the hand boiler increase in kinetic energy (increased temperature); the liquid expands. This rise in temperature causes the liquid to start to evaporate. Because there is some evaporation, but no condensation, the equilibrium is ruined in the hand boiler until the evaporated molecules lose kinetic energy and become liquid again (cool off). Bottom Chamber gas: When you apply heat to the bottom chamber, the gas increases in pressure because of the evaporated molecules.
The mineral sample was rinsed with distilled water and filtered into a volumetric flask (50 mL). (Some errors occurred at this portion of the experiment, because the funnel was too close to the flask. No solution could filter through until it was lifted. When lifted, some solution spilled.) Next 15M NH4OH “ammonium hydroxide” (4mL) was added to the volumetric flask.
The soxhlet apparatus is a piece of glass wear that is used for the extraction and distillation process. The extraction process, like any other is the technique that is used to separate or isolate a species from a mixture of compounds or impurities . Distillation is the separation of component substances by selective vaporization and condensing. The soxhlet apparatus does both these at once by constantly evaporating, condensing and collecting in the Soxhlet glass chamber, all to be re-used several times. This is the basic principle behind the soxhlet apparatus.
Then it was left to boil under for 1hour. After which round bottom flask was removed from the reflux setup and held first under running room temperature water and then an ice bath until it cooled down enough to comfortably handle it. Next the cooled solution is poured into a 100ml volumetric flask and topped it off to the mark with denoised water. Subsequently, 20ml of this solution was pipetted into a conical flask. To this, 80ml of cold water and 15ml of 2M HCl was added to the conical flask.
If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again. After obtaining an homogeneous mixture, the flask was placed in an ice bath during five minutes next to a graduated cylinder containing 5.0 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. The temperature of the ice bath was recorded to be 1.1 °C. Likewise, a second graduated cylinder containing 1.8 mL of nitric acid and 2.5 mL of sulfuric acid was immersed in the cold ice bath to keep the three different solutions at the same temperature. Thereafter, the cold 5.0 mL of H2SO4 were added to the erlenmeyer flask containing the acetanilide solution, which remained in the cold water for approximately another 4 minutes.
In order to calculate for the molar mass the temperature, volume, mass, and pressure was measured. The ideal gas law equation was derived in order to express the relationship between the molar mass, mass of the condensate, temperature, pressure, and volume. A 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask was added with an unknown liquid, was capped with an aluminum foil with a tiny hole and was heated in boiling water in a beaker until the liquid in the flask is vaporized. The flask was cooled until condensate is observed. After cooling, the flask was weighed in an analytical balance.
Title of proposed project To determine the optimum conditions that extract the greatest volume of orange oil. (a) Research background (introduction and problem statement) According to The Free Dictionary (2003), extraction can be defined as a separation procedure in which a substance is separated from its matrix using various methods. Extraction can be categorized into liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. When it comes to oil extraction, it can be elucidated as a process of isolating oil from fleshy fruits such as olive and avocado, seeds like sesame seed and peanuts, fruit peels such as lemon peels and orange peels as well as animal by-products (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2016). Due to the