O. M., et al performed an experiment on soap production using various blends of neem oil and shea butter oil at different ratios (i.e. 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 (wt:wt)). The physical properties of the prepared soap including hardness, foamability and pH were analysed. All soap samples prepared exhibited antibacterial properties of varying degrees. It was observed that, the soap samples produced using just neem oil were of the highest hardness as well as those produce using just shear butter.
The mixture was finally made upto 5 mL with distilled water and placed in hot water bath at 95ºC for 1 h. After cooling, 1 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of the mixture of n-butanol and pyridine (15:1, v/v) was added. The mixture was vortexed and after centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes, the absorbance of the organic layer (upper layer) was measured in UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimatzu) at 532 nm against blank using distilled water. TBA when allowed to react with MDA aerobically formed a colored complex [MDA-(TBA) 2 complex] which was measured with spectrophotometer. MDA concentration (measured as TBARS) was calculated as
A total of 30 g of seaweed Sargassum sp. washed and dried. The dried seaweed soaked in a solution of 0.4% formalin for 6 hours and 1% HCl solution for 1 hour and then washed with distilled water to pH neutral. Furthermore, seaweed cut added a solution of Na2CO32% with a ratio of 1:30 (w/v). Subsequently extracted by Microwave at power level 70 for 16 minutes and then filtered.
The sample was transferred to a 250 ml conical flask kept in water bath for alkali treatment. 75 ml of 17.5% caustic soda was measured using a measuring cylinder at 20°C. 15 ml of 17.5% NaOH was added and fibres were macerated gently with a flattened glass rod for 1 minute. 10 ml more NaOH was added and the solution was mixed for 45 seconds. 10 ml NaOH was again added and mixed for 15 seconds to make lump free slurry.
Since this process leads to the formation of a bar of soap, it is so called the saponification process. In the saponification process, there is a chemical reaction between fats, lye and water. The composition of oil was changed with the help of lye and this leads to the formation of soap. Cold process soap making takes 4-6 weeks to be cured before using to produce harder, better quality and longer-lasting bar of soap. Besides, something that we need to take note during cold process soap making is not to use hard water during the process as it will cause the unwanted substances within the hard water to take part in the
3) Both anti-bacterial soap and regular soap work the same in combating the prevention of bacteria and fungus growth and spread. Materials and methods At the start of the experiment each person will have both a TSA and a PDA plate. Then each person will either wash their hands with Anti-bacterial soap or with regular soap. I was assigned to wash my hands with anti-bacterial soap. After this I got a cotton swab and traced the perimeter of my left hand.
SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OBJECTIVE In this experiment you will determine the solubility and solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, potassium hydrogen tartrate, and also in four solutions containing a common ion. INTRODUCTION When a salt of low dissolubility dissolves in water, equilibrium is established between the solid solute and the dissolved ions. There are two terms used in discussing this condition. The first is solubility, which is the maximum amount of salt that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (usually water) at a specified temperature. Solubility is usually expressed in units of molarity (moles/L), but sometimes g solute/ g solvent is used.
The drop rate was adjusted to 1 to 2 drops/second. 10.0 mL of the NaOH solution was allowed to drip away into a waste beaker. The exact volume of the sodium hydroxide solution used was determined. A clean 250-mL beaker was taken and around 0.3 to 0.5 g of potassium acid phthalate was weighed into it. 50 mL of distilled water was approximately added to this 250 mL beaker and gently swirled so that the solid (potassium acid phthalate) got fully dissolved into the water.
After that process, required quantity of waste animal fat was taken in a 1000ml beaker and then required amount of methanol and NaOH were added to the heated oil Continuous heating and stirring with magnetic stirrer were carried with help of magnetic stirrer. Thermometer was used temperature of oil. This mixture was stirred and heated to 600C for 2hours and then allowed to attain room temperature for 8 to 10 hours. Then the biodiesel and glycerol layers were separated in separating funnel. Finally, methyl esters of waste animal fat (crude biodiesel) were water washed twice with normal water.