A- Introduction The old rent law in Lebanon was enacted after the end of the World War II, in order to protect the rights of tenants from greedy landowners. The law was based on freezing all rental agreements made before this date. This law did not take into consideration inflation, the eventual rise in wages, and the increase in the rental housing market. After the Civil War in 1992, the rent market was liberated, and new contracts were allowed. Landlords were able to raise rent after three years.
There was also a need for more jobs since immigrants were fleeing to the U.S. for a better life. The technological factors that shaped the development of cities and urban life after 1860 were the parts of cities that were dedicated to industrialization and warehouses that provided more jobs for immigrants. How were the new cities different from the typical city before 1860? Answer: There was a lot of hustle and bustle in the old cities. Not to say that it’s not the case in new cities, but back then there were areas in which immigrants suffered in poverty and lived in tenements even though they worked long hours.
From a theoretical point of view, the rationale of rent gap theory is suggesting that gentrification activities will probably occur for neighborhoods and homes in case where speculations of land or properties exist. This theory was first argued by a renowned geographer, Neil Smith, and further unevenly developed by several theorists, pointing out that if there is a potential disinvestment in property occurs, which means the estimated value generated from the piece of land or the property is higher than the current use, the rent that can be extracted will become gradually less. The extent of the gap will always tend to be developed between the rental value of the property and that which could be derived a higher reinvested use. All in all, these
As better education became more accessible for the working and middle class, the working class moved into the middle class and the middle class rarely regressed into lower class. As the population of the middle class grew, so did their average income, with this they were able to vote, buy products, and put money into savings accounts which kept money in the British economy. With more middle class representation in government, more acts were passed that called for governmental reforms in favor of the middle class. The growing population influenced the economy, the growing income influenced society, policies, and economy of England, and political growth influenced living conditions and further development of political reforms. All of this change started from the growth of the middle class due to the Industrial
However, when the media picks up that an area is transforming and becoming ‘hip’, more established middle classes take an interest in the place and subsequently, prices rise. Eventually, middle class professionals are out priced by managers and business elites. This classic model however, appears to be more complex in the case of Parisian gentrification: the pioneering role of artists is debatable, and changes in residential and retail occupation prove to be less interconnected than in North American cities . One could argue that gentrification in these French Neighborhoods has become problematic because they have become a source of investment rather than a place to live, therefore downplaying the social and cultural traditions of these neighborhoods. According to Clerval, the creation of new social housing has not been sufficient either to meet needs or to compensate for
Gentrification has had a constructive outcome on Social particularly on neighborhood. Some Neighborhood are experiencing through Gentrification in which destitute poor individuals are requested moved with certain installment while middle class individuals entered, yet at the same time the deplorable ones are agreeable to this idea in light of the fact that they profit by it. Destitute individuals advantage from enhancements in the public arena's administrations which they have a place, in light of that having low salary families have a higher inclination to have a high wage and can be a possibility of beginning another better life. Fundamentally Gentrification in a social level serves as obstruction from poor families to well off families. The most recent issue over urban legitimacy has developed in New York City where in poor people, white collar class, and rich have rubbed shoulders for a considerable length of time.
Both further complicate the procedure of renovating a building or saving it from destruction. An old Lebanese law is also a major problem since it states that the people who have signed a rent contract before the law was passed will have that specific rent rate fixed and the landlords cannot do anything about reclaiming their property from the renting occupants. “The old rent law doesn 't allow the owners to reclaim what is theirs, as long as the tenant lives and brings family to live with them forever, in return for revenue too meager to keep the house in good shape,” explains Pascale Ingea, This law vitally brings down the economic revenues by being stuck in a state in the past that does not apply to current conditions and circumstances and further blocks attempts at revitalization and renovation of heritage
Inspired by european city rebuilding projects, American cities started clearing away older neighborhoods and creating grand avenues with impressive buildings. The only problem with the growing population was finding housing for the new residents. In Document 6 Nash explains how urban geography changed with emerging central businesses, few people living downtown, middle class residential areas stretched out beyond working class neighborhoods, and the growth of the suburbs which led to better transportation. Many of the rich lived in palatial mansions in the heart of the city while the moderately well to do took advantage of less expensive land on the outer edges of the city thus leading to what was known as the growth of the suburbs. However the poor could not afford housing in the city or in the suburbs and this led to the growth of tenement housing.
This expansion of cities made the needs greater for the cities to grow, so we see the creation of the industrial core. The growth of the middle class and suburbs was a result of the urban boom. The social classes start to come in place because of the middle class. Many people look at the social division as a bad thing, but if all of the people were rich than there would be no need for the growth and develop. That is what makes the Gilded Age a celebrated time, it was not perfect time period by all standards but this idea of the social division was important to the growth of this county at this time.
The formation of the New Upper Class and the New Lower Class in America are due to the behavioral changes in the people of society. Class system has existed throughout history and has been a major cause of many historic events. Whether those events have impact upon human societies or not, the class system continues to exist in the modern world. In America, there has been a formation of additional classes in the society due to the rise of corporatism and modernization. Specifically, modernization has allowed people of middle class to form the New Upper Class and the people of lowest class has form the New Lower Class.