Intro In the period from the 1641 until 1692, Ireland was plagued with continuous political conflict, rebellions, violence and civil warfare. This period of Irish history was driven by violence as it was prevalent throughout the whole country and it is the defining theme of that fifty-year span. What sparked off the violence, that prevailed for just over half a century, was the 1641 Rebellion which began because of fear of civil war on both sides of the religious divide. Oliver Cromwell was sent to Ireland to crush the rebellion and this lead to harsh and drastic changes both in Ireland and in England. In England these changes were political, and in Ireland the changes affected all aspects, including increased unrest.
His extravagances, unsuccessful war campaigns and the amount of money spent on the Versailles caused the deficit of the country to extremely high. Despite this, his powerful and influential nature may have prevented a revolt by preventing powerful nobles from being influenced by the lower class to revolt against the king. Based on this information, it is shown that King Louis May have been an influential person and ruler, he did many things that damaged France’s economy and increased its
Thomas Cromwell was a man who came to power during the reign of HenryVIII. While that is a true statement, it also fails to provide a clear indication of what Cromwell’s power consisted of and how much of it he actually had. Cromwell was Henry’s chief minister and vicegerent , which meant he had a large degree of influence over the initial stages of Henry’s reformation. Cromwell’s rise occurred because he supposedly was able to solve the kings problem of divorce. Diarmaid MacCulloch credits Cromwell with spearheading, if not greatly directing the religious developments of Henry’s England.
Facing persecution in Europe, the Puritans came to America in order to create a society that lived according to the Bible’s demands. They were a separatist group who believed in purifying the Church of England by eliminating all aspects of Catholicism, like the Pope, for instance (“Puritan New England; Plymouth”). They also believed in predestination. This means that God chose whether or not a person would be saved or condemned at birth. However, the Puritans did not know whether God chose them to be saved or condemned, therefore, they lived through strict policies laid out in the “Covenant of Works” and the “Covenant of Grace.” The “Covenant of Grace” declares that “nothing people do can erase their sins nor earn them a place in heaven.” Consequently, the “Covenant of Works” states that “God’s elect must do good works…to earn their salvation” (Henretta).
Cromwell along with the English army had one aim in sending the army to Ireland and that was to establish power. It was power that drove Cromwell and his parliament. This can be clearly seen by their activities in England when the House of Commons was purged. It can therefore be concluded that it was likely that Cromwell would be willing to use brutality if he saw it as a necessity to ensure parliamentary power. It has often been pointed out by historians that Cromwell’s methods in Ireland were
They did this through strict laws and harsh punishment. Two important laws that were enacted included the requirement of church attendance and that everyone was to observe the sabbath. Although the Puritans sought a form of religious freedom, they were not open to the practice of other religions. They were even dissatisfied if one worshiped in an “incorrect” way. Quakers would enter their community, they were often beaten, branded or even lynched if the persisted.
William the Conqueror created an efficient tax collection system by requiring the complete census of his kingdom. Tax collection was made fair depending on individuals social status and income. Medieval Capetian Kings built an effective bureaucracy in which government officials collected taxes and imposed royal law over the king’s land. Monarchs also introduced standing armies during wars which in the modern nation-state is important to have and use for future conflict. When Henry II inherited the throne, he broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law.
This parable teaches modern Christians to not be rebellious to God and to not reject Jesus as the Messiah, the true Son of God. The tenants were rebellious and wanted the vineyard for themselves, even though it was not theirs to begin with. In the same way, people today should not want what is not theirs because it might be taken away. After all, all material possessions will be taken away, so do not get used to them without acknowledging where they came from first. This ties up directly with Matthew 6:19-24 where it says, “do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth…but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where moth nor rust destroys and where thieves do not break in and steal.” In the same way, Christians should not be concerned when their material possessions are taken away because their real and only treasure lies in heaven, and God gave them what they needed, so he can surely take it away.
Elizabeth defeated the greatest power/country in the 16th century. Spain was ruled by King Philip II and had a good relationship with England that quickly worsened over time because Elizabeth refused to marry Phillip, the countries had different religions and England encouraged pirates who plundered Spanish ships. In 1588 Philip sent a massive fleet towards small England. The Spanish Armada had 130 ships and 30,000 soldiers. The plan was to sail from Spain through the English panel, the Spanish would meet with the ships of Duke Parma, Phillips nephew.