Before setting out for the journey, Dante spoke cowardly to Virgil: “Poet, you who guide me, consider if my powers will suffice before you trust me to this arduous passage” (Inferno, 2.10). Clearly, Dante did not think of himself as a hero. Despite already having Virgil as a guide, Dante still lacked confidence and commitment. This confirmed that fact that Dante will unlikely tour hell alone; therefore, unable to reach the divine heaven. Here, I argued that he had intentionally done this to illustrate the Christian ideal that ones could not achieve one’s ultimate goal alone.
Out of this tension and search for answers in Christian thought, emerged the Just War Theory of St. Augustine of Hippo. Augustine continued in the Christian tradition of believing all war to be intrinsically evil. He unequivocally condemned those who desired, sought, or enjoyed war, and made it clear that to engage in a just war is to engage in war by force of necessity. In Book 4, chapter 14 of his magnum opus, The City of God, he says “to carry on war and extend a kingdom over wholly subdued nations seems to bad men to be felicity, to good men necessity .” Later, in Book 9, chapter 7 of the same work, he states the same even more clearly: “But, say they, the wise man will wage just wars. As if he would not all the rather lament the necessity of just wars, if he remembers that he is a man; for if they were not just he would not wage them, and would therefore be delivered from all wars.
However, the book was not the only reason for More’s execution it was also because More refused to believe that King Henry the 8th should be the head over the Pope. The reason King Henry the 8th created the Anglican Church was, therefore he had the ability unlike before when the pope rejected his request of the Catholic Church was he desired to get a divorce from his wife which eventually he did so under his church. However, Sir Thomas More could not accept changing his religious beliefs to fit the agenda of his corrupt king who desired his every wish to be fulfilled. During the 16th century the king responded negatively to “Utopia”, however I think many would look at the work as a learning experience such as the article “What We Can Learn Today from More’s Vision of Utopia” were they created their own perfect society to celebrate the books 500th anniversary. There would be some that would be closed-minded and only Jason Cannon Professor Lauer 13 February 2018 TCP- Unit 1 dismiss the concept because of the word communism, furthermore missing the reason why the book is important because it expresses a new
With French rulers believing they had all the power and majesty of God, they continuously failed their people by letting their egotistical ways interfere. Bossuet argues that kings must provide for their people; however it is seen as more of a dictation when they people are told what religion to follow and have no say in their government as under the ruling of an absolute monarchy. Bossuet firmly believes that kings are equal to the people in terms of following the laws, however, unlike the people they are not subject to the consequences of the laws, but have the final say in the laws (J.-B. Bossuett, 1834). This leads to their endless reign of dictation without representation as seen in Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s instructions for commissioners who were sent into
As time went by the spirit of truthfulness sprang from Christianity and eventually gave way to the rise of nihilism as people began to question the notion of God and the whole Christian culture (Moroney, 1987). Nihilism is unavoidable and, in spite of its destructive aspect, it can be rejuvenating, and consequently beneficial experience (Moroney, 1987). When Nietzsche says that nihilism can be beneficial and rejuvenating for Europe it is active complete nihilism that he is talking
3.4 The Resurrected Will Not Marry like Angels (22.23–33) Matt 22.23–33, which is the famous debate on resurrection between Jesus and Sadducees, is the most significant passage pertaining to the angelification in the Gospel of Matthew. For the purpose of this essay, we will focus on Jesus’ response, which consists of two theses: (1) The resurrected will not marry nor be given in marriage (vv. 29–30); (2) The resurrection of the dead exists (vv. 31–32). For the reasoning of thesis (1), scholars generally agree that angels were thought to be deathless and thus not to marry nor be given in marriage for the purpose of procreation.
The church had a strong belief that everyone must do whatever the Bible says with nothing more and nothing less. When people started doubting and challenging traditional customs, they were losing interest in the religion and began to think of life scientifically. In 1554, John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian published Commentaries of the First Book of Moses in which he stated “all ordinary people endowed with common sense...the study should not be prohibited nor this science condemned”(D2). Calvin states that religious beliefs should not interfere with science and the people of it are only discovering the admirable wisdom of God. Also, in 1695, Gottfried Leibniz, a German philosopher in his “New Stems of Nature” said “God governs mind...these very movements of matter being produced for the happiness of the good and the punishment if the evil”(D12).
At the end of the XVI century, the Catholic Church abandons the worries about the end of the world and the coming of the Antichrist, which yet will remain important issues for protestant movements and sects (Galois 2007, p.263). However, despite many attempts, no religious authority will be able to eradicate the widespread folk divinatory practices and occult beliefs, from chiromancy to presages interpretation, coming from pagan ancient traditions (Galois 2007, 264). The decline of religious prophecies facilitate the rise of Western Astrology, which lives its golden age between the XIV century and the XVII century. Astrologists offer an alternative to the delusional classic predictions inspired by the supernatural, and the scientific appearance of astrology is able to seduce both contemporary élites and populace (Galois 2007, pp. 273-275).
When talking to the Controller, he fills with rage and frustration because he feels the need to recognize God. However, the Controller responds by saying: “But God´s the reason for everything noble and fine and heroic. If you had God..´ ´My dear young friend,´ said Mustapha Mond, ´civilization has absolutely no need of nobility or heroism. These things are symptoms of political inefficiency. In a properly organized society like ours, nobody has any opportunities for being noble or heroic´" (Huxley 237).
Certain religious sects demean reincarnation because it is not compatible with their own exegetical interpretation, or because it is condemned by their theologians. Now is reincarnation a valid doctrine? Apparently, an early church council, The Council of Nicea, held around the year 400 A.D., did not think so. Reincarnation teaches that each person lives many lives and dies many deaths, but Hebrews 9:27 rules out any possibility of being born and dying over and over and over again, by declaring that it is appointed unto men to die once, and after this, comes judgment. From a scientific point of view, Psychiatrist Brian Weiss, M.D., has written a book confirming the idea of reincarnation from a scientific point of view.