Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen.
Introduction of Closed Source System On the other side, closed system’s source code is not published to the public. Only the programmers can have access to the source code and modify it. Closed source is frequently used by private sector to protect their brand. They earn more profit when consumers continue to use their product due to lack of similar alternatives. Both open and closed source system are not differentiated bases on their cost.
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) are known to be anaerobic rod shaped gram positive bacteria which are capable of forming spores. They are known to be the cause of millions of worldwide infections on a yearly basis. They are primarily acquired from hospitals, with incidences of such infections gradually increasing over the last 20 years. They are capable of causing potential life threatening cases of diarrhoea. Although they were discovered in the intestinal flora of new born babies in the 1930s, they were not recognised as a major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea up until the 1970s.
The yeast menace refers to the potentially debilitating fungal infection Candidosis, also known as Monilia, Thrush or simply yeast infection. When the ratio of friendly bacteria to Candida (which is a type of yeast) becomes out of balance, then the Candida can proliferate, resulting in Candidosis. There are over 20 types of Candida, but the most common is Candida Albicans. In a healthy digestion system, our colons are populated by a large colony of bacteria which play a role in aiding the final stages of digestion and the manufacture of B vitamins. Usually, around 80% of the bacteria are considered 'friendly' and are primarily of the Lactobacillus Acidophilus variety, whilst the remaining 20% are yeast organisms, Candida Albicans.
Using the microscopic agglutination test, we found that 92% of rat serum samples were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies; the most common infecting serovars were Manilae, Hebdomadis, and Losbanos. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gyrase B gene sequence analyses, four groups of rat kidney isolates were found: L. interrogans serovar Manilae, serovar Losbanos, and serogroup Grippotyphosa, and L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica. Most isolates were lethal after experimental infection of golden Syrian hamsters. Results showed that these four Leptospira serovars and serogroups are circulating among rats, and that these animals may be one of the possible transmission sources of leptospirosis in the
Mastitis is one of the most problematic diseases and continues to have a major economic impact on the dairy industry throughout the world (Bachaya et al., 2011). A total of about 140 microbial species, subspecies and serovars have been isolated from the bovine mammary gland (Radostits et al., 2007). Among infectious agents, bacterial pathogens are considered to be the major threat to mammary gland. In Asia, major mastitis causing organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, E. coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Klebsella spp., and recent reports indicating the changing trends from Staphylococcus aureus to Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) as major mastitis causing organism (Sharma et al., 2012).
The Salmonella enterica is said to be one of the principal causes of foodborne illness worldwide. This is a rod-shaped, flagellated and a gram negative bacterium which infects chicken poultry in public markets. Staphylococcus aureus is said to be a gram-positive coccal bacterium that primary cause’s food poisoning around the world. Escherichia coli is said to be the most thoroughly studied genus of bacteria. Facultative anaerobic rods that are found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded animals.
Of all the kefir starter microbial components, the microphillic homofermentative lactococci and acetic acid bacteria are the most active against coliforms.Van Wyk (2001) showed that kefir possesses an inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus cereus,Escherichia coli,Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Listeriamonocytogenes.Studies have also indicated that yeasts such as Torulaspora, whenseparated fromkefir, possess pronounced antimicrobial activity against coliforms (Powell, 2006 and Garrote,et al., 2010).The exact cause of the inhibition is not known, but may be due to the antagonistic action of various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Garrote,et al., 2010 and Magalhães,et al., 2011). Lactic acid bacteria are also capable of preventing the adherence, establishment, replication, and pathogenic action of certain enteropathogens (Rea, et al. 1996).The
Some of the negative staphylococci may be the cause of bacteraemia and many can cause skin contamination. In the bloodstream isolates of staphylococci, 77% of negative staphylococci strains and 71% of S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin. The rates of S. aureus in Egypt were higher than those in Canada and the U. S. by the comparison with our isolates. The Canadian isolates of S. aureus were also more susceptible to macrolides, sluoroquinolones, co-trimoxozole and gentamicin. In our isolates, penicillin resistance of S. pneumonia was identical to other parts of the world.
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION STENOTROPHOMONAS AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN BEINGS 1.1 Stenotrophomona-maltophilia is a gram negative, non-fermentive, aerobic bacteria which is usually found in aquatic environments and plant rhizospheres. It is motile due to the polar flagella and colonizes well in MacConkey agar, which is not a generally discovered pathogen among human beings. It is resistant to many drugs and it mainly affects the nosocomial region on individuals with low immunity. Though the organism can cause infections among various tissues, organs etc, quite frequently found in respiratory tract infections. The organism has various different mechanisms for colonization and infections.