Through The Psychologist Eye In Lauren Slater’s book, “Opening Skinner’s Box,” we discover in the first three chapters the mysteries behind a few psychological experiments and the discoveries that three profound psychologists have made. Each chapter is about a different psychologist, the first is B.F. Skinner; a behaviorist who designed a process of learning in which behavior is controlled, he called this operant conditioning. Lauren Slater wanted people to know about his experiment, she read his books, talked to friends and family members to unearth the features behind this man. She found that he was a loving father, who could train animals to do unordinary things, like play the piano for an example, through the processes of operant conditioning, …show more content…
David Rosenhan. A psychoanalyst, who wanted to know if psychiatrist were misdiagnosing patients, or were even able to distinguish the sane from insane. Psychiatrist, are supposed to be able to diagnose people with the correct medical terms, and treat them correctly. They are supposed to help patients. This is what Rosenhan wanted to discover, he called eight of his friends to see if they had a month to devote to his experiment. A month? How crazy, they would say. But by the end of their conversation, Rosenhan had them laughing and agreeing to be involved. Eight pseudo patients would fake their way into an asylum, but once inside they would act their normal sane self, and see if the psychiatrist would know the sane from insane. Rosenhan instructed them on what to say to their psychiatrist and how to avoid taking the pills once inside the asylum. They all would say that they were hearing a voice in their head that would say thud. On just that sentence alone they were sent to asylums and being diagnosed as schizophrenic or manic depressive. Rosenhan’s experience in the asylum, entailed that patients were not helped with their psychological disorders, let alone acknowledged at all. They were considered invisible. The nurses would turn their heads when patients would spit out their given medications. The psychiatrists wouldn’t even notice that Rosenhan was acting sane and should be sent home. Rosenhan had asked the psychiatrist when he would be able to go home and all he would say is when you are well. It took over a month for Rosenhan to be set free. He was randomly discharged one day, and discovered that psychiatry is psychiatrically
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Has anyone else ever wondered how many sane people have been misdiagnosed or even committed to an institution unnecessarily? In chapter three; On Being Sane in Insane Places, in the novel Opening Skinners Box, Lauren Slater has written about experiments conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan in 1972 and again by herself sometime in the 2000’s.
In the drama film, One Flew Over the Cuckoo 's Nest, Patrick McMurphy was moved from a prison farm to a mental institution to get evaluated for his erratic behavior. Upon being transported to the institution, all his assumptions about his new home were completely wrong. The head nurse, Nurse Ratched, has the whole hospital under her control with little to no freedom for the patients. All the inmates at the institution go through rigorous training to become obedient to Nurse Ratched and her strict schedule and rules. The institution was a very controlled environment with the patients having no control over their own life’s while there.
“Opening Skinner’s Box” is a book set up differently than I’ve ever read. Lauren Slater narrates a series of compelling experiments in the form of stories in a given chapter. Each chapter follows a different innovative thinker or scientist while Slater provides her own take and response to the experiment. Each experimenter thought differently than anyone else during their time and often performed dangerous and innovative experiments to get their psychiatric analysis.
The novel One Flew Over The cuckoo’s nest by Ken Kesey follows the experiences of Randle Patrick McMurphy who has pretended to be insane in order to a psychiatric hospital and escape from serving time in a prison work farm. The novel frequently refers to authorities that control individuals through restrained methods. The authority of the ward is most often personified in the character of “Nurse Ratched” or “Big Nurse”. The patients of the ward are afraid of Nurse Ratched that they fallow her orders without question. They “ long ago gave up the struggle to assert themselves.
In order to address the modern perversion of democracy, Ken Kesey constructs the mental institution as a microcosm of society, which serves as a lens to examine the autocratic state of government and its promotion of mass ignorance, and condemnation of dissent within Kesey’s novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Most significantly, Kesey depicts the doctor’s deceptive expression of the “Therapeutic Community [as] a democratic ward, run completely by the patients and their votes”(48). Although Spivey and many of the patients firmly hold onto this belief of possessing self-determination, Kesey indicates that the ward’s mission statement is merely an optimistic delusion to appease the patients by making it appear as though their opinion matters; however, the grim reality of the
Ken Kesey’s novel “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest” was set during the psychedelic sixties of the post war American society, where many social changes were influenced by psychedelic drugs. During the end of the 1950s Psychiatry had reached the peak of its apparent prestige in the American Society, where psychiatric hospitals were seen as “a utopian monument to the virtues of separating the mentally ill from the community for successful treatment.” In “one flew over the cuckoo’s nest”, Ken Kesey displays an era with the widespread practice of “Therapeutic community” through the eyes of Chief Bromden; the narrator who suffers from Schizophrenia and is seen as the observer in the novel. Ultimately, through the portrayal of a post war American Psychiatric hospital setting, Ken Kesey explores how society smothers difference even though it may come as a valuable aspect to society.
In the book “One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest” Ken Kesey shows that the “insanity” of the patients is really just normal insecurities and their label as insane by society is immoral. This appears in the book concerning Billy Bibbits problem with his mom, Harding's problems with his wife, and that the patients are in the ward
Madness, insanity, lunacy, these words are more than clinical diagnoses. These words are in part, social constructions rooted in a specific place, at a specific point in time. In 19th century America, state insane asylums thrived. Not in terms of the environmental conditions of these institutions, but in terms of overcrowding and to the extent that individuals could be involuntarily committed. The purpose of this essay is not to expose the conditions of these institutions.
He went on to explain that the people in those institutions are very limited to the things they are able to do and the choices that they can make. Simple choices such as what to eat, what to wear, and what to do in your freetime are made for the mentally ill by the workers. The patients are forced to take medication against their will and are also limited to everyday things such as being outside. There is so much dehumanization that occurs that the mental hospital doesn't feel like a place where the patients are receiving help. Instead, the patients themselves refer to being at the mental hospital as “doing time” as they would in
So not only was a “crazy” person unlawfully trapped in a mental institution, they were also subjected to societies “humane” methods of therapy, “including drugs and shock therapy, to rehabilitate its patients” (Vitkus, 74). One of the methods formerly used to treat mental illness and stopped in 1947 was called Lobotomy, which means a surgical operation involving incision into the prefrontal lobe of the brain, which was described as “frontal-lob castration” because “if she can’t cut below the belt she’ll do it above the eyes” (Kensey, 164). A Lobotomy, in the Combines eyes, is considered a permanent “fix” and deemed successful to returning those once insane back to the outside world of reality. Therefore, the social understanding and models of practices experienced in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest represents “a whole analogical system that serves, metaphorically, to define the inhumanity of a society that demands total conformity” (Vitkus,
“Opening Skinner’s Box” In the first chapter of her book, Lauren Slater mentioned about the strange rumor of B. F. Skinner: Skinner tried to bring up his daughter like an experimental animal in a “skinner’s box” which is known for his notable discoveries about operant conditioning for animals (7-8). Of course, this is not truth, and his experiment for his daughter was quite loving one which could even assist her growth. Then Lauren decided to apply his method of operant conditioning to her baby to make her not crying during midnight. Even though operant conditioning could help children’s growth like Skinner’s or Lauren’s cases, is it really safe enough not to give them some trauma?
At the end, the protagonist is surgically operated to make him mentally deranged. The nurse and the department were certain that McMurphy was faking insanity, but they agreed that he was dangerous. The nurse, in spite of discharging him, kept him on the premises to undo the wave of excitement he brought to the asylum
Charles Dickens had a great interest in psychiatry and the treatment of the insane. For instance, in Household Words, with W. H. Wills, he wrote about their visit to Saint Luke’s Hospital at Christmastime in 1851. Dickens describes the patients’ “oppressive silence,” and return to their usual solitude after dancing. He says that the patients gathering round a Christmas tree gave him “a very sad and touching spectacle,” and concludes, “the utmost is necessarily far inferior to the restoration of the senses of which they are deprived. To lighten the affliction of insanity by all human means, is not to restore the greatest of the Divine gifts; and those who devote themselves to the task do not pretend that it is.
The patients are confined to their quarters in the mental hospital or so it is ought to be. In the reality of the film the hospital has been overtaken by the lunatic patients and the staff thrown into cells in the dungeon. Thus the staff has been imprisoned and the mad patients are living freely in the mental institute being looked after by Dr Silas Lamb, a mental man there for murdering soldiers in his care during the Afghan War. The imprisonment of the real staff of Stonehearst evokes terror in the viewer and creates