To introduce optimum design for improved performance of the compressor. 2. To increase efficiency of compressor. 1.3 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS • Compressor – A machine which converts kinetic energy of the fluid to pressure energy. • Rotor – The rotating airfoils are known as rotors or blades which accelerate the fluid.
Observation/ Research: Boyle’s Law As Robert Boyle stated “Pressure and Volume are inversely related. To add more, temperature and moles are constant.” (Boyle). So, if Pressure increases, then the volume decreases or the other way around. This is Boyle’s Law. According to this law, P x V = k, where k is a constant.
In the hydraulic press Pascal's law is used to increase force. A small force applied to a small piston in a small cylinder is transmitted through a tube to a large cylinder where it then presses equally against all sides of the cylinder including the large piston. Until the 19th century it was not possible to develop velocities and pressures much greater than those already provided by nature. In hydraulic-power systems there are five different elements: the driver, the pump, the control valves, the motor, and load. The driver may be an electric motor or any type of engine and the pump acts to increase pressure.The motor may be a counterpart to the pump and motors may produce either rotary or reciprocating motion in the load.
Introduction A pump is a machinery for raising, compacting or exchanging fluid. A fluid can be gasses or any liquid. Pumps are a standout amongst the frequently sold and utilized mechanical device and can be found in relatively every industry. Because of this there is an extensive variety of various pumps accessible. Fig(1) indicate type of pump.
AIR COMPRESSOR Air compressor is an electronic device that converts power into potential energy in form of pressurized air. Air compressors are found in a wide range of usage with one of them been the supply of high-pressure clean air to fill gas cylinders at gas stations. The compressed air is also used to inflate vehicle’s tire and also used to remove tires. There are also small desktop air compressors used with an airbrush or a trailer-style gas powered air compressor at a construction site for powering jackhammers and concrete compactors. Air compressors are also hidden away in the refrigerator or the HVAC system.
Most hydraulic grippers are designed for a hydraulic system where the cylinder diameter is made with less surface area, meaning that a hydraulic gripper would have the same force at 60 bar as a pneumatic gripper of the same size at 6 bar. In general, hydraulic and pneumatic grippers have the same basic actuation principle. They include direct acting piston designs
Compressed air from the compressor (1) passes through the control valve (4) and pressure regulator filter section (5) and enters in the vortex tube (10) tangentially. To ensure the tangentially entry of the compressed air in the vortex tube to have proper swirling of the air special care was taken. The compressed air expands in the vortex tube and divides in to cold and hot streams. The cold air leaves the cold end orifice near the inlet nozzle while the hot air discharges the periphery at the far end of the tube i.e. hot end (11).
Positive displacement Positive-displacement compressors work by forcing air into a chamber whose volume is decreased to compress the air. Once the maximum pressure is reached, a port or valve opens and air is discharged into the outlet system from the compression chamber. Common types of positive displacement compressors are: • Piston-type: air compressors use this principle by pumping air into an air chamber through the use of the constant motion of pistons. They use one-way valves to guide air into a cylinder chamber, where the air is compressed. • Rotary screw compressors: use positive-displacement compression by matching two helical screws that, when turned, guide air into a chamber, whose volume is decreased as the screws turn.
Hydraulic Pumps 2. Hydraulic pumps are a source of converting mechanical power into hydraulic energy. Hydraulic pumps are used in hydraulic machines to perform different types of work such as lift, lower, open, close or rotate components. When it operates, following functions are performed: (a) Creates a vacuum at the pump inlet thus allowing atmospheric pressure to force reservoir liquid into suction port of pump. (b) Secondly,
MAIN PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS Pneumatic components can be divided into two categories: 1. Components that produce and transport compressed air. 2. Components that consume compressed air. All main pneumatic components can be represented by simple pneumatic symbols.