Operation Husky's Victory During World War II

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Introduction The Allies declared Operation Husky a victory after 38 days of fighting. The strategic objectives to weaken Italian forces and push German forces back from their front in Sicily were accomplished. Under the Husky victory façade, however, there were continual failures in Allied command and control (C2) and the integration of joint functions. When Operation Husky was executed, unified C2 and integration of joint functions were aspirational concepts that were not fully implemented in operational planning or strategies. Husky was a shallow victory since the Axis forces had ample time and opportunity to successfully evacuate over 100,000 German and Italian Soldiers and substantial equipment from Sicily to the Italian mainland. Allied…show more content…
Joint fire support assists other air, land and naval forces to move, maneuver, and control territory, airspace, and key waters. The lack of coordination of plans between the Husky air, naval and land forces resulted in the absence of direct operational fire support and avoidable incidents of fratricide by fires. There was minimal integration of air support to ground forces during the initial invasion on the west beach fronts. Small Axis aircraft fired on Allied landing vehicles without interdiction. Air support was not provided to the assault divisions, particularly the 7th Army, until three days into the invasion. Fault was attributed to an ineffective transmission system and identifying viable targets. Naval forces, however, provided effect fire support as the 7th Army struggled to get their Sherman tanks ashore on D Day. The lack of integration of plans regarding the Allied airborne operations on the evenings of 11 and 13 July, 1943 resulted in the fratricide of sixty pilots and crewmen and eighty-one paratroopers. The failure to communicate the airborne plans to subordinate ground commanders and units along with rigid orders to naval forces to fire on all aircraft at night created the fratricide…show more content…
Forces are moved into an area and then maneuvered offensively or defensively. Maneuver is the means to set the time and location of battle, decline battle, or exploit existing situations. The objective is a center of gravity or decisive point. Not only was the initial landing of forces critical to mission success, but equally vital was the ability to continually achieve positions of advantage. Allied landing forces needed to get equipment and Soldiers inland as quickly as possible to push Axis defenses back and provide a safe zone. Studying the Sicilian terrain, there was only one potential exit for Axis defenses – the strait at Messina. The ‘funnel’ of moving toward Messina provided Axis forces continually folding defensive lines as Allied forces pushed north. Axis forces in the strait provided a COG for operational maneuver. But Allied operations headquarters did not coordinate a joint function plan. As Axis forces evacuated Messina, Allied bombers targeted the area only during daylight hours. Naval forces did not enter the straits to directly engage evacuating forces. The proposal to move Allied land forces to flank the retreating Axis forces was dismissed. Axis forces succeeded in moving over 100,000 German and Italian Soldiers along with more than 7,000 vehicles, tanks, guns and ammo to the Italian mainland from 11-17 August,

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