All of these theories explain crime in terms of social environment, including peer groups, family, school, workplace, community, and society. Yet these theories differ from one another. They offer different explanations why social environment causes crime. Some focus on individual differences in crime while others try to explain group differences. The strain theory suggest that people commit crimes because some type of stress or strain going on in their lives.
This theory supports the situational crime prevention theory that crime is a choice and can be deterred through the removal of suitable targets or guardianship. Guardianship can be a security guard, a fence, a password or any other person or item that makes a target unsuitable due to increased chances of being caught or the offense too difficult. Routine activity theory is one of the more popular and accepted theories of
The reason for the existence of crime is a deviation from the socially accepted norm of behavior which is essential for the peaceful and unhindered progress of society. And for this this reason the state imposes law to maintain law and order and to make sure the presence of justice is present to all members of society. This ensures the
Some criminological theories assert that individuals are born criminals while others maintain that individuals are made criminals as a consequence of the environment they are immersed in. In fact, biological theories of crime take on the perspective that crime is innate, genetic, or caused by brain abnormalities. Sociological theories of crime, on the other hand, contend that environmental factors such as poverty and who individuals associate with directly contribute to criminal behaviour. The view that crime is genetic, the nature theory, strongly opposes the view that crime occurs due to the environment individuals are exposed to, the nurture theory. Although biological theories of crime contend that individuals engage in criminality as
Routine activities theory is were behavior and people in time and space influence when a crime will occur and where. This was the independent variable in Like-Haislip and Miofsky (2011) research. They looked at the involvement in the workplace, which is an important predictor of victimizations. Staying away from home puts a high risk of victimizations to take place because it put them in the way of motivated offenders (Like-Haislip & Miofsky, 2011). Social disorganization theory
The criminal activities theory talks about crime events (Criminal Justice, n.d.) It looks at why some people commit crimes and what are the motivations to commit the crimes. This theory suggests that the daily routine of society could cause or create the opportunity for a crime. All you need is a likely offender, a target, and the absence of a guardian to create an opportunity for a crime. Suggestions made to reduce crime from this theory try to alter the routines and limit opportunities to prevent crimes. Another theory related to criminal activity would be the social control theory.
The impact of crime on an individual victim, their loved ones, and their community depend on a variety of factors but often crime victimization has significant emotional, psychological, physical, financial and social consequences. This paper aims to relate the advices provided by University of Botswana Security Services regarding victimization and crime prevention with Routine Activity Theory. As stated above crime is any act and the rate of crime in the university is increasing which drove the security services to formulate way to prevent and try curb victimization in campus. This paper is therefor going to establish whether the tips provided are in line with elements of routine activity theory. Routine activity theory examines crime as events occurring at specific locations in space and time, involving specific persons and objects.
These individuals are likely to believe that the better way to reduce crime is to give criminals a harsh punishment. A positivist theory tries to explain that several biological and social factors may lead to criminal behavior. For example, there might be a lack of poverty and education in some places in which could result in a cause of higher crime rates but can be reduced if employment and educational opportunities are being suggested. Last theory is Individual trait, in which suggests that the most distinguishable differences between noncriminal and criminals are physiological and biological. Therefore a suggestion for this would be to limit the interaction between the ones who have the same
Female sex offenders are assessed with an aim of establishing the future likelihood of re-occurrence of such sexual offensive behavior and to establish mechanisms that can be used to decrease the risk and rate of recidivism. They exhibit a higher level of vulnerability connected to these sexual offensive behaviors. An extensive victimization history and social and psychological alienation are issues that are common among most sexual offenders. Static risk factors associated with female sexual offenders include history of criminal offenses, child abuse offenses, drug arrest and prior sexual offense arrest. Dynamic risk factors include substance abuse, problematic relationships, wanting revenge, desire to be intimate with a victim and using of sex as a tool for regulating emotional state.
Property crime is an issue that affects the community. It has a category of crime that includes other crimes like: burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, and vandalism. Property crime involves the taking of property, and does not involve threat of force against a victim (Ellingworth,1995). These are the following major crime such as theft, robbery, budol-budol, snatching and hold-up. Theft and Robbery refers to the act of stealing of money or it is done with intent to gain, shall take any personal property belonging to another, by means of violence against or intimidation of any person, or using force upon anything (SFH Allison, 2005).