Optimism In Voltaire's Candide

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The introduction:
In life, there are the cheerful people (optimistic) and there the frown faced ones (pessimistic). Taking one side remains illogic in the course of life, as it is better to strike a balance between these two extremes. Candide is torn between being naïve and a kind of lamb in the herd led by an optimistic Shepard, and his famous saying’ in this best of all possible worlds’. (Voltaire, 1761, p.4). And the shocking discoveries that he makes later on his journey to meet his beloved baroness. The story starts at in Westphalia and travels to the Americas to end in Turkey. In this novel, Voltaire opposes the different views of life as represented in the characters of Pangloss the philosopher representative of optimism and the pessimistic
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(Voltaire, 1761, p.4)
This quote is links to the philosopher Leibnitz who embraces the optimism, where Voltaire condemns this kind of ideology, and ebodies it in Pangloss’s character that the excessive believe in optimism is something intolerable in Candide. Voltaire’s critique to the Libenitz’s optimism is very severe and starts his novel with this quotation to ridicule and challenge this idea. ,(Voltaire, 1761, p.4)

2- ‘’Mankind must have corrupted nature just a little, ‘he would say, ‘ for men are not born wolves, yet they have become wolves.’’ ( Voltaire, 1761, p.12)
The Anabaptist ‘Jacques’, explains that he does not agree with Pangloss. And demonstrates that mankind is born as a benevolent creature, despite that god has given them the will to do the good but they astray from the right path. He says men born not as beasts but turn to be beasts after all. ( Voltaire, 1761,
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They attracted by his simplicity, and the way of life he follows. The Turk keeps himself away of trouble by not interfering in politics and others’ business. Candide asked the Turk that he must own a vast wealth of land to have such independent life. But the answer amazed Candide’s curiosity. The Turk answered that he and his children cultivate their land. And the work at their farm keeps them from three sins vice, boredom, and need. They are so busy with their own business. ( Voltaire, 1761, p.92)
12- ‘’That’s well said, replied Candide, ‘but we must cultivate our garden.’’ ( Voltaire, 1761, p.94)
After all the experiences that Candide endured to be with his love, he examines three philosophical schools; optimism with the philosopher Pangloss, Pessimism with Martin, and with reality in turkey. He realizes that not all things are optimistic where everything is good and prosperous. And not from pessimism, where everything is gloomy and miserable. He stays in the middle where lies the reality that matches the real world. ( Voltaire, 1761, p.94)
The
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