Dr. Shellen Wu’s article, titled The Search for Coal in the Age of Empires: Ferdinand von Richtofen’s Odyssey in China, 1860-1920, is about the movement from wood to coal as the leading fuel source all over the world in the late nineteenth century, and how geologist, Ferdinand von Richthofen, played a huge role in this discovery of coal as an abundant source of energy in China. The second sentence of the article clearly sums up Dr. Wu’s thesis. She states, “On the basis of his [Richthofen’s] travels over the next four years and seven expeditions, Richthofen coined the term Seidenstrasse (Silk Road); correctly hypothesized the origin of loess, the yellowish silt-like material covering much of North China; and described to the outside world vast deposits of coal in the Chinese interior.” Dr. Wu’s article goes along with the theme that we’ve discussed in class all semester, which is, “how have technological advancements throughout history
It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is not only the oldest it is also the last standing. Egyptologists believe that pyramids were built as tombs for the Fourth Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu. Based on these estimates, building the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing approximately 800 tonnes of stone every day. Additionally, since it consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks, completing the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour, day and night.
3000 BCE: Cuneiform (History) In Ancient Mesopotamia, the Sumerians developed the earliest standardized writing system: Cuneiform. Small marks were made with a pointed, wedge-shaped stylus on clay tablets, and were used to recorded business transactions. (Style) In its early forms, Cuneiform was written in columns from top to bottom. As many of the symbols were reoriented on their sides, the writing direction also turned to rows from left to right. Cuneiform symbols underwent even more changes in the next 500 years, including evolving from pictograms to ideograms.
The mysterious land of ancient Egypt is famously known for religious beliefs, geography, pharaohs, and contributions to modern society. For almost 30 centuries ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization throughout the Mediterranean world. However, Egypt was not always the country we learned about in school. During the Predynastic Period (around 6000-3150 B.C.) Egypt was split into two separate kingdoms.
900, with the rise of ceremonial objects, (Judge, 4), is when the most known evidence of Mesoamerican trade and influence is shown. Research upon 33 macaw skeletons excavated in Pueblo Bonito, has shifted some of the previous thoughts on the timeline of their presence and use in the ceremonial context at Chaco Canyon. Originally attributed to the peak of Chaco, (A.D. 1040-1100), the use of macaw feathers and the keeping of macaws has been pushed back to the beginning of this rise, A.D. 900. (Powell,1), (Watson, 1). Within the surrounding cultures and including Chaco Canyon, more than 400 total remains of macaws have been excavated in the region, (Watson, 1).
The Shang Dynasty, also known as the Yin (or Shang Yin) Dynasty, is roughly dated from 1700-1050 B.C. The Shang Dynasty is best known for its jade and bronze. The first proven source of this dynasty’s existence was through the archaeological discovery of oracle bones and excavated graves. *3 more sentences During this Bronze Age of China, Many achievements and goals were reached. The Chinese built large cities with stable social class divisions aggrandized irrigation systems and utilized their supply of jade and of course, Bronze.
The practice of mummification dates back to the third Dynasty, to around 2600BC, but it was only in 21st Dynasty, in c. 1000BC, that the technique was perfected. It took centuries of experiment, and repeated failures, before the ancient Egyptians mastered the complex art of preserving in their dead the appearance of the living. According to Assmann (2014), at the end of the third Dynasty, the embalmers began removing the body’s abdominal organs. This is a fact that is indirectly confirmed by the appearance of Canopic jars, the stone vessels designed to hold these organs. There are seven steps in the process of mummification which are announce the death, embalm the body, remove the brain, remove the internal organs, dry out the body, wrap the body, and execute the final possession (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
Writing System: The Shang set up the first Chinese writing system that while originally depicted pictures of objects, became simplified over time with each character representing a one-syllable word for an object or ideas. The several hundred written symbols were used to write messages on oracle bones and lay the foundation for China’s modern writing system. Bronze works: The Shang mastered the piece-mold casting technique used to make bronze ritual vessels. This technique allowed numerous vessels to be made from a single mold and is recognized by some art experts to have led to the creation of some of the best bronze works.
The Nefertiti Bust is a picture that is believed to be 3300 years old. It was a stucco coated bust of Nefertiti made of and is made of limestone. Nefertiti was regarded as the great royal wife of the then Egyptian Pharaoh known as Akhenaton. Sculptor Thutmose is believed to have crafted the work in the year 1345 BC since it was discovered in his workshop found in Amarna in Egypt. The art is one of the arts that has been copied severally in the ancient Egypt.
Stone Relief with Dragon Design The piece that I have chosen to write about in this paper is the Stone Relied with Dragon. This piece is from the 14th-15th century in China. It is thought to have been created during the Ming Dynasty, but further research suggests that it may have been built earlier, during the Tang dynasty ("Relief with Design”) This piece was made out of marble and is 50 ½ x 90 x 2 ½ inches. It was donated to the Dayton Art Institute my Mrs. Harrie G. Carnell in 1928. It is located in gallery 112, and the acquisition number is 1928.