The four systems are the digestive system, the respiratory system, the circulatory system, lymphatic system and the urinary system. The digestive system is divided into two sections i.e. the alimentary canal this is about nine meters long which starts from the mouth and ends at the anus. The second section is the accessory organs these are organs which assist with digestion, absorption and storage of food substances. This includes the pancreas, liver and the gall bladder.
They are bean-shaped, approximately 1 – 25 mm long, and act as a lymph filter. They are positioned in groups in specific regions of the body and named after that region, eg. inguinal (groin) and axillary nodes (arm) (Rhoades et al 2003). The node’s outermost layer is the capsule, dense connective tissue covering the node, which extends into it in extensions called trabeculae that section the node into compartments, providing structural support and a route for blood vessels to enter the node, via which B and T cells can also enter (Milling n. d.). Deep to the capsule is a network of reticular fibres and fibroblasts which, with the capsule and trabeculae, make up the stroma.
The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
Olszewski, W.L., Jamal, S., Manokaran, G., Pani, S.P., Kumaraswami, V., Kubicka, U., Lukomska, B., Dworczynski, A., Swoboda, E. & Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F., 1997. Bacteriologic studies of skin, tissue fluid, lymph, and lymph nodes in patients with filarial lymphoedema. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 57(1), pp.7–15. 48. Dreyer, G., Addiss, D., Dreyer, P. & Noroes, J., 2002.
Elevation of the intraocular pressure (fluid pressure inside the eye) is considered as a risk factor for some ocular disorders specially glaucoma, which can eventually lead to blinding. Current treatments for this disease focus on lowering intraocular pressure (Zeng et al. 2010). Such pressure elevation within the eye is believed to be due to an increase in the resistance to aqueous humour outflow from the eye, but the exact origin of this resistance increase has not been determined yet (Johnson 2006). The physiological aspects of aqueous humour outflow pathway have been extensively reviewed (R Tripathi 1974; RC Tripathi 1974; Bill 1975; Bill & Mäepea 1994; Gong et al.
In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping.
Various assays have been devised to evaluate apoptosis at several points of the cascade. Based on the methodology, the commonly used assays can be classified into the following groups: 1. Changes in cell morphology: morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation and changes in plasma membrane occur. Each of these changes can be quantified using Flow Cytometry. For example, the forward scatter parameter reduces on cell shrinkage while nuclear condensation causes an increase in side scatter.
ANATOMY OF THE SKIN A) Skin histology and terminology : The skin consists of 2 main layers ,the epidermis and the dermis. The dermis and the epidermis are derived from a different embryologic tissue type. The subcutaneous tissue resides immediately beneath the two primary layers of skin. The outer layer of skin (the epidermis) consists of stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium and is derived from ectoderm (Fig. 1).
Their study showed that poorly differentiated OSCC had more cannibalistic cells than moderately differentiated OSCC. Therefore it was concluded that cannibalism quite easily identifiable and could be used as a useful marker in aggressive OSCC. Jose D et.al (2014)  noted the presence of cannibalistic cells in OSCC. Their study showed the aggressive nature of cancers associated with increase of cannibalistic cells, along with lymph node
Cellular integrity, in turn, prevents errors that arise from DNA replication, cellular metabolism, and carcinogenic exposure. These exposures consist of ultraviolet light, radiation, or damaging chemical substances. Many professionals believe that tumor initiation and following progression result from acquired genomic alteration within normal cells. The populations of tumor cells appear to be more unstable genetically than normal unaltered cells. Genomic instability causes individuals to maintain shorter cell cycles and also causes the bypassing of intracellular and immunological control systems.